Reliability in the location of hindlimb motor representations in Fischer-344 rats

Laboratory investigation

View More View Less
  • 1 Landon Center On Aging,
  • 2 Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology,
  • 3 School of Medicine, and
  • 4 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $369.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00
Print or Print + Online

Object

The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using a common laboratory rat strain for reliably locating cortical motor representations of the hindlimb.

Methods

Intracortical microstimulation techniques were used to derive detailed maps of the hindlimb motor representations in 6 adult Fischer-344 rats.

Results

The organization of the hindlimb movement representation, while variable across individual rats in topographic detail, displayed several commonalities. The hindlimb representation was positioned posterior to the forelimb motor representation and posterolateral to the motor trunk representation. The areal extent of the hindlimb representation across the cortical surface averaged 2.00 ± 0.50 mm2. Superimposing individual maps revealed an overlapping area measuring 0.35 mm2, indicating that the location of the hindlimb representation can be predicted reliably based on stereotactic coordinates. Across the sample of rats, the hindlimb representation was found 1.25–3.75 mm posterior to the bregma, with an average center location approximately 2.6 mm posterior to the bregma. Likewise, the hindlimb representation was found 1–3.25 mm lateral to the midline, with an average center location approximately 2 mm lateral to the midline.

Conclusions

The location of the cortical hindlimb motor representation in Fischer-344 rats can be reliably located based on its stereotactic position posterior to the bregma and lateral to the longitudinal skull suture at midline. The ability to accurately predict the cortical localization of functional hindlimb territories in a rodent model is important, as such animal models are being increasingly used in the development of brain-computer interfaces for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

Abbreviations used in this paper:ICMS = intracortical microstimulation; SCI = spinal cord injury.

Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $369.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to: Shawn B. Frost, Ph.D., Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., MS 4016, Kansas City, Kansas 66160. email: sfrost@kumc.edu.

Please include this information when citing this paper: published online May 31, 2013; DOI: 10.3171/2013.4.SPINE12961.

  • 1

    Angel A, , Jolly AI, & Lemon RN: A re-investigation of the sensorimotor cortical area for the hind leg in the rat. J Physiol 215:18P19P, 1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Barth TM, , Jones TA, & Schallert T: Functional subdivisions of the rat somatic sensorimotor cortex. Behav Brain Res 39:7395, 1990

  • 3

    Benton RL, & Whittemore SR: VEGF165 therapy exacerbates secondary damage following spinal cord injury. Neurochem Res 28:16931703, 2003

  • 4

    Cenci MA, , Whishaw IQ, & Schallert T: Animal models of neurological deficits: how relevant is the rat?. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:574579, 2002

  • 5

    Donoghue JP, & Wise SP: The motor cortex of the rat: cytoarchitecture and microstimulation mapping. J Comp Neurol 212:7688, 1982

  • 6

    Ethier C, , Oby ER, , Bauman MJ, & Miller LE: Restoration of grasp following paralysis through brain-controlled stimulation of muscles. Nature 485:368371, 2012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Friel KM, & Nudo RJ: Recovery of motor function after focal cortical injury in primates: compensatory movement patterns used during rehabilitative training. Somatosens Mot Res 15:173189, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Hall RD, & Lindholm EP: Organization of motor and somatosensory neocortex in the albino rat. Brain Res 66:2338, 1974

  • 9

    Hochberg LR, , Bacher D, , Jarosiewicz B, , Masse NY, , Simeral JD, & Vogel J, : Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm. Nature 485:372375, 2012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Hollis ER II, , Lu P, , Blesch A, & Tuszynski MH: IGF-I gene delivery promotes corticospinal neuronal survival but not regeneration after adult CNS injury. Exp Neurol 215:5359, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Huang CS, , Sirisko MA, , Hiraba H, , Murray GM, & Sessle BJ: Organization of the primate face motor cortex as revealed by intracortical microstimulation and electrophysiological identification of afferent inputs and corticobulbar projections. J Neurophysiol 59:796818, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Jurkiewicz MT, , Mikulis DJ, , McIlroy WE, , Fehlings MG, & Verrier MC: Sensorimotor cortical plasticity during recovery following spinal cord injury: a longitudinal fMRI study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 21:527538, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Kleim JA, , Barbay S, & Nudo RJ: Functional reorganization of the rat motor cortex following motor skill learning. J Neurophysiol 80:33213325, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Kokotilo KJ, , Eng JJ, & Curt A: Reorganization and preservation of motor control of the brain in spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neurotrauma 26:21132126, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Loy DN, , Crawford CH, , Darnall JB, , Burke DA, , Onifer SM, & Whittemore SR: Temporal progression of angiogenesis and basal lamina deposition after contusive spinal cord injury in the adult rat. J Comp Neurol 445:308324, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Master D, , Cowan T, , Narayan S, , Kirsch R, & Hoyen H: Involuntary, electrically excitable nerve transfer for denervation: results from an animal model. J Hand Surg Am 34:479487, 487.e1487.e3, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Neafsey EJ, , Bold EL, , Haas G, , Hurley-Gius KM, , Quirk G, & Sievert CF, : The organization of the rat motor cortex: a microstimulation mapping study. Brain Res 396:7796, 1986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Nudo RJ, & Frost SB, The evolution of motor cortex and motor systems. Kaas JH: Evolution of Nervous Systems: A Comparative Reference Oxford, Elsevier, 3:2006. 374395

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Nudo RJ, , Jenkins WM, , Merzenich MM, , Prejean T, & Grenda R: Neurophysiological correlates of hand preference in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci 12:29182947, 1992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Nudo RJ, & Masterton RB: Descending pathways to the spinal cord: a comparative study of 22 mammals. J Comp Neurol 277:5379, 1988

  • 21

    Nudo RJ, , Milliken GW, , Jenkins WM, & Merzenich MM: Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci 16:785807, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Sabbah P, , de Schonen S, , Leveque C, , Gay S, , Pfefer F, & Nioche C, : Sensorimotor cortical activity in patients with complete spinal cord injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurotrauma 19:5360, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Sandner B, , Pillai DR, , Heidemann RM, , Schuierer G, , Mueller MF, & Bogdahn U, : In vivo high-resolution imaging of the injured rat spinal cord using a 3.0T clinical MR scanner. J Magn Reson Imaging 29:725730, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Settlage PH, , Binghan WG, , Suckle HM, , Borge AF, & Woolsey CN: The pattern of localization in the motor cortex of the rat. Fed Proc 8:144, 1949

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Stoney SD Jr, , Thompson WD, & Asanuma H: Excitation of pyramidal tract cells by intracortical microstimulation: effective extent of stimulating current. J Neurophysiol 31:659669, 1968

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Tyler BM, , Hdeib A, , Caplan J, , Legnani FG, , Fowers KD, & Brem H, : Delayed onset of paresis in rats with experimental intramedullary spinal cord gliosarcoma following intratumoral administration of the paclitaxel delivery system OncoGel. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Spine 16:93101, 2012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    VandenBerg PM, , Hogg TM, , Kleim JA, & Whishaw IQ: Long-Evans rats have a larger cortical topographic representation of movement than Fischer-344 rats: a microstimulation study of motor cortex in naïve and skilled reaching-trained rats. Brain Res Bull 59:197203, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Weber T, , Vroemen M, , Behr V, , Neuberger T, , Jakob P, & Haase A, : In vivo high-resolution MR imaging of neuropathologic changes in the injured rat spinal cord. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:598604, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Woolsey CN, Organization of somatic sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. Harlow HF, & Woolsey CN: Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 6381

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Woolsey CN, Patterns of localization in sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. Cobb S: Biology Of Mental Health and Disease New York, Hoeber, 1952. 193206

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 448 128 22
Full Text Views 86 6 0
PDF Downloads 200 3 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0