Revision lumbar surgery in elderly patients with symptomatic pseudarthrosis, adjacent-segment disease, or same-level recurrent stenosis. Part 1. Two-year outcomes and clinical efficacy

Clinical article

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Object

Same-level recurrent lumbar stenosis, pseudarthrosis, and adjacent-segment disease (ASD) are potential complications that can occur after index lumbar spine surgery, leading to significant discomfort and radicular pain. While numerous studies have demonstrated excellent results following index lumbar spine surgery in elderly patients (age > 65 years), the effectiveness of revision lumbar surgery in this cohort remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of revision lumbar decompression and fusion in the treatment of symptomatic pseudarthrosis, ASD, and same-level recurrent stenosis, using validated patient-reported outcomes.

Methods

After a review of the institutional database, 69 patients who had undergone revision neural decompression and instrumented fusion for ASD (28 patients), pseudarthrosis (17 patients), or same-level recurrent stenosis (24 patients) were included in this study. Baseline and 2-year scores on the visual analog scale for leg pain (VAS-LP), VAS for back pain (VAS-BP), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) as well as the time to narcotic independence, time to return to baseline activity level, health state utility (EQ-5D, the EuroQol-5D health survey), and physical and mental component summary scores of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 PCS and MCS) were assessed.

Results

Compared with the preoperative status, VAS-BP was significantly improved 2 years after surgery for ASD (mean ± standard deviation 9 ± 2 vs 4.01 ± 2.56, p = 0.001), pseudarthrosis (7.41 ± 1 vs 5.52 ± 3.08, p = 0.02), and same-level recurrent stenosis (7 ± 2.00 vs 5.00 ± 2.34, p = 0.003). The 2-year ODI was also significantly improved after surgery for ASD (29 ± 9 vs 23.10 ± 10.18, p = 0.001), pseudarthrosis (28.47 ± 5.85 vs 24.41 ± 7.75, p = 0.001), and same-level recurrent stenosis (30.83 ± 5.28 vs 26.29 ± 4.10, p = 0.003). The Zung SDS score and SF-12 MCS did not change appreciably after surgery in any of the cohorts, with an overall mean 2-year change of 1.01 ± 5.32 (p = 0.46) and 2.02 ± 9.25 (p = 0.22), respectively.

Conclusions

Data in this study suggest that revision lumbar decompression and extension of fusion for symptomatic pseudarthrosis, ASD, and same-level recurrent stenosis provides improvement in low-back pain, disability, and quality of life and should be considered a viable treatment option for elderly patients with persistent or recurrent back and radicular pain. Mental health symptoms may be more refractory to revision surgery.

Article Information

Address correspondence to: Owoicho Adogwa, M.D., M.P.H., 215 Light Hall, Nashville, Tennessee 37232. email: owoicho.adogwa@gmail.com.

Please include this information when citing this paper: published online December 14, 2012; DOI: 10.3171/2012.11.SPINE12224.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

Figures

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    Kaplan-Meier plots depicting the duration of postoperative narcotic use for patients undergoing revision decompression and fusion for symptomatic lumbar pseudarthrosis, ASD, or same-level recurrent stenosis. The median time (IQR) to narcotic independence following surgery for symptomatic pseudarthrosis, ASD, and same-level recurrent stenosis was 4 (1.5–24.33), 3 (1–24.33), and 12.16 (1.5–24.33) months, respectively.

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    Kaplan-Meier plots depicting the duration of postoperative time to return to baseline activity level for patients undergoing revision decompression and arthrodesis for symptomatic lumbar pseudarthrosis, ASD, or same-level recurrent stenosis. The median time (IQR) to return to the baseline activity level following surgery for symptomatic pseudarthrosis, ASD, and same-level recurrent stenosis was 5 (3–6), 4.5 (3–8), and 4 (3–5) months, respectively.

  • View in gallery

    Bar graph depicting cumulative 2-year gain in health utility after revision decompression and fusion for symptomatic ASD, pseudarthrosis, and same-level recurrent stenosis. Overall, the 2-year cumulative health utility gained after revision decompression and fusion was 0.35 QALY (ASD: 0.34 QALY, pseudarthrosis: 0.31 QALY, and samelevel recurrent stenosis: 0.40 QALY). Left bars indicate the preoperative global health status; right bars, the postoperative global health status.

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