Thoracolumbar spinal deformity: Part II. Developments from 1990 to today

Historical vignette

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In the first part of this 2-part historical review, the authors outlined the early diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used in the management of spinal deformity. In this second part, they expand upon those early innovations and further detail the advances from 1990 to the modern era.

Abbreviations used in this paper: AIS = adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; ALIF = anterior lumbar interbody fusion; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; CSVL = central sacral vertical line; EMG = electromyography; MEP = motor evoked potential; PLIF = posterior lumbar interbody fusion; rhBMP = recombinant human BMP; SRS = Scoliosis Research Society; SSEP = somatosensory evoked potential; VB = vertebral body.

Article Information

Address correspondence to: Adam S. Kanter, M.D., Department of Neurological Surgery, Minimally Invasive Spine Center, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Suite B-400, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213. email: kanteras@upmc.edu.

Current affiliation for Dr. Lam: Division of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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Figures

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    Modern pedicle screw and rod constructs for correction of spinal deformity. A and B: Preoperative long-cassette radiographs demonstrating progressive scoliotic deformity and sagittal imbalance following previous pedicle screw and rod fixation at L3–4 for spondylolisthesis. C and D: Postoperative long-cassette radiographs obtained following thoracolumbosacral pedicle screw and rod fixation with iliac screws and lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy at L-3 showing restoration of sagittal balance.

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    Preoperative (A) and postoperative (B) coronal view radiographs revealing the significant correction obtained following the minimally invasive anterior release and placement of interbody cages at L2–3, L3–4, and L4–5.

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