Thoracolumbar spinal deformity: Part II. Developments from 1990 to today

Historical vignette

Fred C. Lam Division of Neurosurgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada;

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Adam S. Kanter Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;

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David O. Okonkwo Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;

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James W. Ogilvie Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; and

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Praveen V. Mummaneni Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California

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In the first part of this 2-part historical review, the authors outlined the early diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used in the management of spinal deformity. In this second part, they expand upon those early innovations and further detail the advances from 1990 to the modern era.

Abbreviations used in this paper:

AIS = adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; ALIF = anterior lumbar interbody fusion; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; CSVL = central sacral vertical line; EMG = electromyography; MEP = motor evoked potential; PLIF = posterior lumbar interbody fusion; rhBMP = recombinant human BMP; SRS = Scoliosis Research Society; SSEP = somatosensory evoked potential; VB = vertebral body.
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