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Paul D. Chumas, James M. Drake, Marc R. Del Bigio, Marcia Da Silva, and Ursula I. Tuor

bilateral readings across six different slides was measured for each anatomical region of interest. Histological Assessment Sections used for autoradiography or additional adjacent sections were stained with Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin and eosin, allowing a direct correlation of histological findings and local CMR glu data. With the internal capsule of the control animals used as a reference for full myelination, the degree of myelination in the periventricular white matter was compared with that in the superior gyri of the posterior frontal lobe and graded on a

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Hiroshi Ozawa, Takeo Matsumoto, Toshiro Ohashi, Masaaki Sato, and Shoichi Kokubun

T he gray matter of the spinal cord mainly consists of nerve cells, whereas the white matter consists of dendrites and axons. The gray matter has been thought to be softer than the white matter, although no definite evidence to this effect has been published. In 1954, Schneider, et al., 9 stated that because hemorrhage spreads in the central part of the spinal cord through several segments causing compression of the white matter, the gray matter has a relatively looser texture and less supportive strength. In 1997, Levine, 6 operating under the assumption

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Fred Nath and Sam Galbraith

. 3 The most widely accepted mechanism, however, remains the reduction of brain edema by the creation of an osmotic gradient which then withdraws water from the brain. This mechanism has never been examined in head injury in man, and we have therefore studied the effect of low-dose mannitol infusion on the white matter water content of patients with traumatic intracerebral hematomas. Clinical Material and Methods We studied 13 patients, all of whom had a traumatic intracerebral hematoma and were in coma at the time of admission to our institute. None of the

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Pablo Gonzalez-Lopez, Giulia Cossu, Etienne Pralong, Matias Baldoncini, Mahmoud Messerer, and Roy Thomas Daniel

-insular quadrantotomy that keeps the motor cortex and the posterior quadrant and their projections intact, thereby maintaining neurological functions. Disconnective surgery avoids the classical complications associated with large brain resections. 3 , 11 We recently published the technical details of this surgery along with a case description of a 9-year-old child. 2 Due to the rarity of these cases, reports from the literature on this group of patients are scarce. We performed a cadaveric study that details the anatomy of the white matter fibers that are disconnected during the

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Magnus Tisell, Mats Tullberg, Per Hellström, Mikael Edsbagge, Mats Högfeldt, and Carsten Wikkelsö

often seen in patients with iNPH. White matter changes in the periventricular and deep white matter are also frequently reported. However, some studies have indicated no negative impact of white matter changes on the effects of shunt surgery. 16 , 19 , 27 Periventricular white matter changes were initially described in patients with small vessel disease in the brain, and the cause was believed to be microangiopathy, small multiple infarcts in the periventricular and deep white matter, and ongoing white matter degeneration. 2 Patients with vascular risk factors and

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Joshua D. Burks, Andrew K. Conner, Phillip A. Bonney, Chad A. Glenn, Cordell M. Baker, Lillian B. Boettcher, Robert G. Briggs, Daniel L. O’Donoghue, Dee H. Wu, and Michael E. Sughrue

% formalin for at least 3 months after removal from the cranium. Up until the time of dissection, the pia-arachnoid membrane was left attached. After fixation with formalin, specimens were rinsed with water for 2 days and then frozen at −10°C for 8 hours, causing white matter disruption. After thawing, dissection of the “freeze-fractured” specimen began with removal of the meninges and identification of cortical anatomy, including gyri and sulci. Relevant cortical areas were identified first. Starting superficially, they were then peeled back to reveal white matter areas

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Francesco Vergani, Christopher M. Morris, Patrick Mitchell, and Hugues Duffau

I n recent years, there has been a growing interest in the study of white matter anatomy. The development of diffusion tensor imaging for in vivo tractography 5 , 15 , 18 and the renewed interest in postmortem dissections, usually performed by neurosurgeons, 14 , 22 , 29 have both contributed to this evolving branch of neuroanatomy. Hodotopy, the study of white matter connectivity, is of great importance, not only for a better understanding of brain functioning but also to tailor the surgical approach to the individual functional anatomy of each patient

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Brian P. Witwer, Roham Moftakhar, Khader M. Hasan, Praveen Deshmukh, Victor Haughton, Aaron Field, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Jane Noyes, Chad H. Moritz, M. Elizabeth Meyerand, Howard A. Rowley, Andrew L. Alexander, and Behnam Badie

the white matter tracts in the immediate region surrounding tumors. The high-intensity signal often seen in the white matter adjacent to a tumor on T 2 -weighted or FLAIR images may represent either tumor extension or edema in the surrounding normal white matter tracts. More detailed characterization of white matter tract integrity surrounding tumors may be helpful in the surgical planning and treatment of patients with intrinsic brain tumors. Several functional approaches such as fMR imaging and intraoperative mapping are used in the presurgical localization of

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Leslie N. Sutton, Derek A. Bruce, and Frank Welsh

Vasogenic edema interferes with cerebral function by elevating intracranial pressure (ICP), and by exerting mass effect which produces cerebral herniation and compression of adjacent brain substance. Despite these secondary effects, however, it remains unclear whether the passage of plasma into the extracellular space of the cerebral white matter results in any direct impairment of cerebral function. It has been suggested that the increase in extracellular fluid that constitutes vasogenic edema might increase local tissue pressure and thereby interfere with local cerebral

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Idahosa J. Ordia, Roy Strand, Floyd Gilles, and Keasley Welch

B lunt trauma to the brain in infancy may cause lacerations in the soft, incompletely myelinated white matter of the centrum semiovale. This characteristic entity was first recognized in autopsy material by Lindenberg, et al. 3 Later, Lindenberg and Freytag 4 described this clinicopathological entity in 16 infants with head injury. The lesion has rarely been detected during life, but it can now be clearly visualized by computerized tomography (CT). Two instances, each the result of deliberate trauma, are presented. It appears that the clefts may become