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Heather M. Kistka, Arash Nayeri, Li Wang, Jamie Dow, Rameela Chandrasekhar, and Lola B. Chambless

M isrepresentation of professional achievements is a well-recognized phenomenon across a variety of professions. Scholarly works in medicine are particularly vulnerable to this type of embellishment. 6 , 9 , 13 The prevalence of scholarly misrepresentation has been studied in applicants for residency and fellowship in several medical and surgical subspecialties, 1–5 , 7 , 10–12 , 14 , 15 , 18–23 and published rates vary widely from 1.8% to 30.2%. 11 , 21 The most recent report in neurosurgery, by Cohen-Gadol et al., 4 demonstrated below-average rates

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Natalie Limoges, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lola B. Chambless, Rohan Chitale, J Mocco, and Susan Durham

, more experienced, older faculty have been shown to provide lower applicant ratings. 8 , 9 Interviews also require considerable investment on the part of the program and applicant. Surveys of residency programs have reported median total recruitment costs of $148,000 per program. 10 The average neurosurgery applicant interviews at 15 programs with median costs of $10,000. 11 , 12 Considering the investment of personnel, time, and money, it behooves the entire neurosurgical community to scrutinize the in-person interview in a way that allows

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Harsh Deora, Kanwaljeet Garg, Manjul Tripathi, Shashwat Mishra, and Bipin Chaurasia

, the importance of sound neurosurgical training cannot be overemphasized. The current generation of neurosurgeons in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) 18 are striving to attain results comparable to those achieved at the best neurosurgical institutions in the world. It is indeed paradoxical that the majority of the neurosurgical burden is shared by LMICs, yet residency positions, infrastructure, and facilities are prohibitively inadequate in these countries. 9 Most centers for neurosurgical training in these countries are still practicing the Halstedian

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Nitin Agarwal, Michael D. White, Jonathan Cohen, L. Dade Lunsford, and D. Kojo Hamilton

S urgical technical proficiency requires extensive and diverse patient-centered training. In order to ensure that residents are adequately equipped to operate independently, residents assume various roles, such as senior or lead surgeon, as their skill set matures. Monitoring of the type of case is considered one way to ensure a general level of experience and growing competence prior to beginning post-residency practice. Previous reports have demonstrated a positive relationship between the volume of procedures performed and patient outcomes. 3 , 9 This volume

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Nitin Agarwal, Phillip A. Choi, David O. Okonkwo, Daniel L. Barrow, and Robert M. Friedlander

O btaining a position in a neurological surgery residency training program is a competitive endeavor, with costs borne disproportionately by the applicants. Neurosurgery residency programs universally participate in the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). In 2009, 295 applicants applied for 191 residency positions in neurosurgery, representing an applicant-to-position ratio of 1.5. 6 Successfully matched applicants had a mean United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score of 239, with an average of 7.8 abstracts, presentations

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A longitudinal survey of adult spine and peripheral nerve case entries during neurosurgery residency training

Presented at the 2018 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Nitin Agarwal, Michael D. White, and D. Kojo Hamilton

G raduating neurosurgical residents must be competent in a vast array of spine surgery procedures. To gain this competency, residents must have extensive exposure to spine surgery throughout their training. To understand how well graduating neurosurgeons are being trained, and to continuously improve residency training, it is essential to evaluate residents’ surgical experience and recent trends in exposure to spine surgery. Identifying gaps in surgical experience, variability in case volumes among graduates, and factors that can impact exposure to spinal

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Peter G. Campbell, Olatilewa O. Awe, Mitchell G. Maltenfort, Darius M. Moshfeghi, Theodore Leng, Andrew A. Moshfeghi, and John K. Ratliff

centers on the assessment of the impact of medical school and residency experiences on the decision to pursue a career in academic neurosurgery. This analysis also provides an estimation of the most productive medical schools and residency programs based on the academic productivity of their graduates. Using this indirect means of comparison, a first step is taken in understanding the factors contributing to choice of an academic neurosurgery career. Because there is no single universally accepted measure of academic productivity, this study benchmarks relative

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M. Harrison Snyder, Vamsi P. Reddy, Ankitha M. Iyer, Aruna Ganju, Nathan R. Selden, Jeremiah N. Johnson, Stacey Q. Wolfe, and

elective rotations provide critical opportunities for neurosurgical applicants to gain broad clinical neurosurgical experience, assess neurosurgery as a career path, and showcase their clinical skills during participation in patient care in acute and intensive care units, outpatient clinics, and operating rooms. In addition, applicants must garner strong letters of recommendation (LORs) that strengthen their residency applications. 2 , 3 Applicants primarily rely on their in-person interactions with program residents and faculty to guide rank list preparation. 4

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Lauren H. Marasa and Thomas A. Pittman

T he choice of a training program is one of the most important decisions a physician will make. Despite the significance of the choice, relatively little is known about how students select a residency. The information that is available indicates that the most important drivers of the decision are the satisfaction of the current residents, the perceived quality of the faculty and clinical experience, and the location of the training facility. 16 , 18 However, some have suggested that these factors vary with the characteristics of the applicant and the

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Adham M. Khalafallah, Adrian E. Jimenez, Justin M. Caplan, Cameron G. McDougall, Judy Huang, Debraj Mukherjee, and Rafael J. Tamargo

fellowship, graduation from a top 20 medical school, and a stated desire in the personal statement to become an academic surgeon. 7 In pediatric neurosurgery, predictors of academic productivity as measured by the h -index have been analyzed after completion of fellowship. 8 , 9 In neurosurgery, however, factors that predict academic placement after fellowship have not been explored. Subspecialization in vascular neurosurgery typically requires dedicated training during residency and, increasingly, a postgraduate or infolded fellowship in either open vascular