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Junichi Mizuno, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Naoki Matsuo, and Joonsuk Song

, preoperative plain x-ray films, polytomography studies, CT scans, and MR images were reviewed in patients with cervical OPLL who underwent anterior procedures, and the modalities were compared in terms of their effectiveness in identifying DO and OPLL. In addition, the frequency and neuroimaging pattern of DO was elucidated in this study. Clinical Material and Methods One hundred eleven patients with cervical OPLL, whose ages ranged from 37 to 84 years (mean 57.6 years), underwent one- or two-level anterior procedures. In these patients, there were 94 cases of

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Karol Osipowicz, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, and Joseph I. Tracy

clinical measures. The 3-modality model of change remained significant regardless of whether these rival hypotheses were examined singly or together against the 3-variable model. This is important, as it demonstrates that these neuroimaging modalities have added value compared with extant models of predication. Our data also make it clear that verbal (semantic) fluency is an at-risk function in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, as a significant proportion of our patients (roughly half of the sample) did experience a decline in this skill despite having a good

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Christopher S. Eddleman and James K. Liu

radiation-induced effects have limited the overall acceptance of radiotherapy. The increased usage of neuroimaging for nonspecific symptoms has resulted in increased detection of ONSM at earlier stages, but the optimal treatment of these ONSMs has remained poorly defined. In this article, we review the incidence, histopathological characteristics, clinical presentation, and neuroimaging findings associated with ONSM as well as current treatment modalities for these lesions, with an emphasis on fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Incidence and Epidemiology Optic

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Philipp Dammann, Markus Barth, Yuan Zhu, Stefan Maderwald, Marc Schlamann, Mark E. Ladd, and Ulrich Sure

single case reports suggest that the modality has further applications, especially in imaging of the associated venous structures. Now that higher field strength (≥ 3-T) MR imaging becomes more and more available, the technical limitations of susceptibility weighted imaging can be overcome and its integration into standard neuroimaging protocols for CCM may expand. Disclosure The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper. Author contributions to the study and manuscript

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Yukinari Kakizawa, Kazuhiro Hongo, Hisayoshi Takasawa, Yosuke Miyairi, Atsushi Sato, Yuichiro Tanaka, and Shigeaki Kobayashi

N euroimaging has made remarkable progress in delineating intracranial lesions and their surrounding structures. Recently available 3D imaging modalities, such as 3D CT angiography, 3D MR angiography, or rotational 3D DS angiography have helped us to understand the patient's anatomy to a considerable degree before surgery. Nevertheless, these modalities do not display nerves and dura mater in a 3D fashion. Neurosurgeons wish to know preoperatively the 3D relationship between a lesion and all its surrounding structures. The currently available 3D Fourier

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Sandeep Mittal, Monika Mittal, José Luis Montes, Jean-Pierre Farmer, and Frederick Andermann

coworkers 27 examined 18 patients who underwent HH resection for intractable seizures, 7 of whom had CPP. The authors noted that HHs causing CPP were larger than those not associated with CPP and were more likely to maintain contact with the tuber cinereum or infundibulum. All 18 hamartomas expressed GnRH and transforming growth factor α, which stimulated the release of GnRH. Expression of other candidate genes was not different between the 2 groups. 27 Clearly, the precise mechanisms involved in HH causing CPP remain to be fully elucidated. 85 Neuroimaging Findings

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Franklin C. Lee, Harminder Singh, Levon N. Nazarian, and John K. Ratliff

Peripheral Nerve Lesions Relatively few studies have examined the use of ultrasonography in the preoperative and intraoperative treatment of patients with peripheral nerve lesions. In the initial diagnostic workup of these 13 patients with peripheral nerve lesions, ultrasonography was an effective imaging modality that augmented electrophysiological and other neuroimaging studies. Ultrasonography provided immediate visualization of a sutured peroneal nerve after a basal cell excision, prompting urgent surgical exploration. Ultrasonography was used intraoperatively in 2

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Blessing N. R. Jaja, Hester Lingsma, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Tom A. Schweizer, Kevin E. Thorpe, and R. Loch Macdonald

N euroimaging characteristics at hospital admission play an important role in the accurate diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured intracranial aneurysms. 3 They help to identify the aneurysm causing bleeding and outline its anatomical configuration and that of adjoining structures to guide optimal choice of treatment modality for exclusion of the ruptured aneurysm from circulation. Neuroimaging parameters at hospital admission have been investigated for their value as predictors of outcome after SAH. Among these parameters, subarachnoid

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Sauson Soldozy, Jacob Galindo, Harrison Snyder, Yusuf Ali, Pedro Norat, Kaan Yağmurlu, Jennifer D. Sokolowski, Khadijeh Sharifi, Petr Tvrdik, Min S. Park, and M. Yashar S. Kalani

efficacy of their bypass. As it stands, ASL imaging continues to be used as an adjuvant rather than a standalone imaging modality and has a long way to go before replacing conventional neuroimaging techniques. Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper. Author Contributions Conception and design: Soldozy. Acquisition of data: Soldozy, Galindo, Snyder, Ali. Drafting the article: Soldozy, Galindo, Snyder, Ali. Critically revising the article: Soldozy, Norat, Yağmurlu

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Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki, Efstathios D. Gotsis, and Kostas N. Fountas

neuroimaging techniques typically used (computed tomography and MR imaging) in a large number of cases cannot safely differentiate between an intracranial abscess, a cystic/necrotic glioma, a cystic/necrotic metastatic lesion, and a primary central nervous system lymphoma. 19 , 21 , 28 , 33 , 35 , 50 Despite the introduction of newer MR techniques such as DW imaging, the problem of distinguishing cerebral abscesses from necrotic or cystic brain tumors remains unresolved. 37 Although brain abscesses are associated with a high signal intensity on DW imaging and a reduced