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William M. Abbott and Emmett L. Dupree Jr.

I t is now clear that the subdural space should be closed even after neurosurgical procedures in which dural removal has been necessary. Closure has been accomplished over the years by a wide variety of natural and synthetic materials including human dura mater procured from cadavers. In a previous report 1 it was shown that human cadaver dura preserved by freeze-drying or lyophilization proved to be a satisfactory dural substitute for permanent implantation. The functional characteristics of an ideal dura graft include successful performance of indicated

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Patrick W. Hitchon, Kurt Eichholz, Christopher Barry, Paige Rubenbauer, Aditya Ingalhalikar, Satoshi Nakamura, Kenneth Follett, Tae Hong Lim, and James Torner

. To this end, artificial disc implants and prosthetic nuclei have been developed, and many have obtained a fairly large amount of follow-up data in Europe; however, they await approval in the US. 1–3, 6, 10, 18, 22, 23, 24, 32, 34 Whereas an artificial disc should allow rotation it must do so without being overly restrictive. In vitro testing of the artificial disc in cadaveric spines helps predict the range of motion of the implant and adjacent spinal segments. In this study we examined biomechanical features of the Maverick artificial disc (Medtronic Sofamor

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Bradley J. Hindman, Ricardo B. Fontes, Robert P. From, Vincent C. Traynelis, Michael M. Todd, Christian M. Puttlitz, and Brandon G. Santoni

L aryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in the presence of cervical spine instability are thought to put patients at risk for cervical spinal cord injury. 5 , 17 , 20 Based on in vitro studies of isolated cervical segments, 24 it is widely presumed that, with application of the forces of intubation, injured (unstable) segments will move more than normal, resulting in excessive stretch (e.g., via hyperextension) and/or direct compression (e.g., via subluxation) of the cervical spinal cord. In a previous cadaveric study, we created an injured C1

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R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Robert J. Spinner, Erik H. Middlebrooks, William R. Stetler Jr., Leslie Acakpo-Satchivi, John C. Wellons III, Jeffrey P. Blount, and W. Jerry Oakes

disability of abduction and external rotation. F ig . 1. Artist's illustration. Left posterior schematic view of the suprascapular nerve (n) in the supraspinous fossa. Note the suprascapular artery (a) and suprascapular ligament (L). We conducted the present study to verify the feasibility of using an endoscopic technique in the release of the suprascapular ligament at the suprascapular notch. Materials and Methods In the supine position, five formalin-fixed and five fresh adult cadavers (six female and four male; 20 sides) aged 60 to 80 years (mean 66

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Jesse L. Winer, Daniel R. Kramer, Richard A. Robison, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Michael Minneti, Steven Giannotta, and Gabriel Zada

acquisition of neuroendoscopic skills. 8 Despite the obvious advantages of a cadaveric model as pertains to real human tissue and normal anatomical variations, thus far it has been virtually impossible to simulate neuroendoscopic intraventricular approaches. Cadavers lack the circulating CSF system required for performing intraventricular neuroendoscopy, and to our knowledge no prior method of reconstituting ventricular CSF flow has been successfully developed and used for surgical training purposes. Tubbs et al. injected saline directly into the ventricles of cadavers

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*Jaejoon Lim, Kyoung Su Sung, Woohyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Seonah Choi, Seung Hoon Lim, Tae Hoon Roh, Chang-Ki Hong, and Ju Hyung Moon

necessary. After tumor removal, we used an artificial dura mater substitute for the reconstruction of dural defects and acellular allogenic dermis for reconstruction of the posterior orbital wall. The orbital rim was repositioned and fixed with application of miniplates. The cadaveric study committee of the Yonsei University College of Medicine approved this study. A total of 10 sides of 5 cadaveric heads were used in this study. Cadaveric heads were prepared by the Thiel embalming and ethanol-glycerin fixation method and then injected with silicone rubber injection

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Shota Tamagawa, Takatoshi Okuda, Hidetoshi Nojiri, Tatsuya Sato, Rei Momomura, Yukoh Ohara, Takeshi Hara, and Muneaki Ishijima

due to the dorsal overhang of the closed posterior superior iliac spine and paravertebral muscle. 19–21 Moreover, previous reports have highlighted the complications of L5 nerve root injury when S1 pedicle screws were inserted anterolaterally. 22–24 Although some cadaveric studies have demonstrated the anatomical relationship between the lumbar pedicle and adjacent dural sac and nerve roots, 25–27 few reports have detailed the anatomy of the L5 nerve root in the pelvis. Previous reports have measured the distance from the sacroiliac joint to the L5 nerve root

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Raqeeb M. Haque, Hani R. Malone, Martin W. Bauknight, Michael A. Kellner, Alfred T. Ogden, John H. Martin, Kurenai Tanji, and Christopher J. Winfree

“breathing leg”). 42 The observed respiration-motor synchrony may be due to ingrowth of thoracic nerve fibers into the spinal cord at the subdural insertion site. This promising clinical experience has prompted us to work toward more systematic human clinical trials. To demonstrate the potential for spinal accessory transfer in cervical SCI and ascertain which intercostal nerves would be most appropriate for transfer to the conus medullaris in thoracolumbar SCI, we performed a cadaveric study of spinal cord bypass surgery. Methods Twenty-three donated adult human

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Ludwig Oberkircher, Sebastian Born, Johannes Struewer, Christopher Bliemel, Benjamin Buecking, Christina Wack, Martin Bergmann, Steffen Ruchholtz, and Antonio Krüger

(C3–T1) were used for this cadaver study. Computed tomography scans were acquired before the procedure to exclude bone abnormalities. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were obtained prior to the study. Bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (XCT Research Bone Scanner, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH) on all fresh-frozen cervical spines. Specimens were stored at –20°C and were thawed at room temperature overnight before the study. Specimens were kept moist during all of the procedures using NaCl-soaked wound dressings. To assure

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Vivek Palepu, Jonathan H. Peck, David D. Simon, Melvin D. Helgeson, and Srinidhi Nagaraja

the stability of lumbar IFCs with that of a more traditional anterior plate and cage construct under fatigue loading. Methods Specimen Preparation Nine fresh-frozen human cadaver specimens, 7 male and 3 female (mean age 74 ± 8 years), were procured from accredited tissue processing institutions (National Disease Research Interchange and Maryland State Anatomy Board). The medical history of each donor was reviewed to exclude trauma, malignancy, previous implantations, or metabolic disease that might otherwise compromise the mechanical properties of the