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Michael C. Dewan, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Abbas Rattani, James M. Johnston Jr., Benjamin C. Warf, and William Harkness

neurosurgical specialists worldwide to quantify the geographic representation of pediatric neurosurgeons, access to specialist care, and equipment and training needs globally. Methods An initial invitation email was sent July 9, 2017, to members of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN), the European Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ESPN), the Global Initiative for Children’s Surgery (GICS), and the World Federation of Associations of Pediatric Surgeons (WOFAPS). Several other surgical societies were contacted for participation, including the College

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Travis Hamilton and L. Dade Lunsford

responses were performed using an Excel spreadsheet, SPSS (version 23, IBM Corp.) and other statistical software. Population statistics were based on current worldwide reports of 529 million individuals in North America, 743 million in Europe, and 4026 million in Asia (including Japan). Results GKRS for Benign Tumors The annual incidence of benign brain tumors in North America, Europe, and Asia ranged from 17 to 81 individuals per million. 3 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 13 , 15 The average estimate of appropriate cases for treatment with GKRS among North American providers was 46

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George W. Koutsouras, Lu Zhang, Nelci Zanon, Sandi Lam, Frederick A. Boop, and Zulma Tovar-Spinoza

-certified women neurosurgeons. 4 , 5 Globally, the women physician workforce proportion increased from 13% in 2000 to 17% in 2017, and so has the number of woman neurosurgeons worldwide. 2 , 6 – 8 Recent studies in the neurosurgery literature have also shed light on woman presence in neurosurgery worldwide and the improved progress that the field of neurosurgery has made in diversifying the workforce in terms of gender and race. 7 , 9 – 12 It is well documented that companies with higher gender diversity are more profitable and successful. 13 , 14 Despite this, there

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Amir Hadanny and Julie G. Pilitsis

women faculty nor residents. 6 The data on sex disparities in neurosurgery worldwide are limited. Shaikh et al. analyzed the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies database and identified only 100 female neurosurgeons outside of North America. 8 Although this number may not have captured all female neurosurgeons worldwide, it does remain problematic. The numbers Forster et al. presented are suggested to reflect the European disparities. Several causes for inequality have been suggested. First, there are societal expectations for women to serve as caregivers

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Graham Fieggen, Miguel A. Arraez, Franco Servadei, Frederick A. Boop, Walter D. Johnson, Benjamin C. Warf, and Kee B. Park

I n 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery offered a summary of the surgical burden and described existing gaps in the provision of safe and affordable surgical care worldwide. 11 More than two-thirds of the world’s population lack access to appropriate surgical and anesthetic care, equating to an estimated 143 million necessary surgical procedures that are left undone. This untreated surgical disease results in extreme economic costs and profound disability and death. 17 Within this tremendous burden of surgical disease resides the contribution of

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Rania Mekary, Laurence J. Glancz, Ismaeel Yunusa, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Graham Fieggen, John C. Wellons III, Kee B. Park, and Benjamin C. Warf

,440 180,733 AMR-US/Can 4,408,520 67.5 2,976 22.1 974 38.5 1,697 5,647 — — 5,647 AMR-L 10,948,403 316.1 34,608 24.3 2,661 — 37,269 0.3 15,972 53,241 EMR 17,394,811 110.1 19,152 44.1 7,664 — 26,823 0.3 11,493 38,309 EUR 11,447,692 83.3 9,536 17.7 2,025 38.5 4,407 15,968 — — 15,968 SEAR 37,525,360 76.3 28,632 23.6 8,873 — 37,505 0.3 16,073 53,578 WPR 24,320,979 83.5 20,308 20.8 5,065 — 25,373 0.3 10,874 36,247 Worldwide 142,421,888.51 167,920 46,420 6,105 220,445 162,852 383,724 CHC = congenital hydrocephalus; HC = hydrocephalus; NTD-HC = NTD-related hydrocephalus

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Saksham Gupta, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Ya-Ching Hung, Maria Punchak, Amit Agrawal, Amos O. Adeleye, Mark G. Shrime, Andrés M. Rubiano, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, and Kee B. Park

of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in countries worldwide. By understanding the relationship between RTI and TBI, the incidence of TBI can be estimated. Because the interaction between RTI and TBI probably differs across regions of various populations, regulations, and infrastructures, a region-specific estimate of this relationship is essential to ensure accurate TBI estimates. Beyond a fundamental disparity in quality data, a majority of the global population resides in LMICs, underscoring the need for reliable estimates of the TBI burden in resource-poor settings

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Ahmad Ozair, Vivek Bhat, and Anil Nanda

( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ ). Figure is available in color online only. During this period, stereotactic surgery was developing independently in several centers worldwide. Near the time Kanaka entered medical school, Ernest Spiegel and Henry Wycis in the US had built the first stereotactic frame for clinical use, expanding upon Horsley-Clarke’s concepts, and later had also created the first brain atlas. 9 Concurrently in Asia, Hirotaro Narabayashi had started stereotactic neurosurgery in Japan through building an indigenous instrument

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Serena Faruque, Walter D. Johnson, Robert J. Dempsey, Michael M. Haglund, Blake C. Alkire, Kee B. Park, Benjamin C. Warf, and Mark G. Shrime

I n 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery outlined the current estimate of the global surgical burden and the status of access to surgical care worldwide. 8 While the worldwide public health and medical communities have made headway in addressing common infectious, maternal, and neonatal illnesses, surgical care has been largely overlooked. Yet, an estimated 28%–32% of the total global burden of disease requires the expertise of a surgeon. 15 Five billion people lack access to safe surgical care, and as a result more than 140 million surgical cases are

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Shelly D. Timmons

for given injuries, and other social sciences fields must be engaged to assist in these predictions. This particular study only included individuals up to the age of 60 years. When considering the increasing older population worldwide, cost estimations must be adjusted to include lower opportunity costs for shorter life expectancies and earning potential of older individuals. The direct costs of care in older populations with comorbidities would, however, be anticipated to be higher. Indeed, in this particular study, the older the patient by increments of 1 year