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general practice neurosurgeons, or subspecialized trainees was discussed. It seemed that the educational content of each program must vary according to its goals and resources. A number of suggestions were made regarding educational materials and techniques. Some groups emphasized the acquisition of operative skills in the animal laboratory or the morgue, the use of 8 mm movie or video clips of operative techniques, and the establishment of reprint and audio-visual libraries. There was discussion of the need for continuous analysis and evaluation of the content; the

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Joseph Ransohoff, M. Vallo Benjamin and Erwin R. Tichauer

, structural relationships, as we all know, may look quite differently when seen through a craniotomy aperture as compared with the dissecting room views. Stereoscopic anatomic atlases are available as well as video teaching tapes but I do not believe these answer the specific need. William Collins at Yale has utilized total simulation of the operating room situation in the autopsy suite to the point of providing the residents with an operating table, surgical type drapes and OR lighting in the conduct of mock operations. Under close to actual surgical conditions therefore

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Joseph P. Evans

-way communication for on-site instruction of trained ambulance technicians and also for instruction of the driver concerning available facilities was emphasized. A special demonstration of a video-phone consultation was made between the emergency room at the Royal Infirmary and the meeting hall, a modification of the technique that has been developed between the main scene of the neurosurgical activities in Edinburgh at the Western General Hospital and the accident unit at the Royal Infirmary several miles distant. The usefulness of this sort of visual and auditory interchange

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Melville Roberts, Guy Owens, Juliet Vilinskas and David D. Thomas

. Immediately after recovery from anesthesia a video tape recording was made of the initial hemiparesis. The monkeys were divided into two groups, an experimental group of 12 in which seizures were induced 40 to 90 minutes after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and a control group of five that was allowed to recover without seizures. In eight monkeys of the experimental group the cannula of a mass spectrometer * was inserted through a right frontal burr hole into the subcortical white matter of the inferior lateral portion of the right frontal lobe. This allowed

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William F. Chandler, Donald G. Dimcheff and James A. Taren

case in which we verified the diagnosis of venous air embolism by fortuitously noting air in the dural sinuses during routine fluroscopy and video taping. Case Report At the age of 10 years this 27-year-old left-handed man noted increased tone and athetoid movements in his right arm and leg which progressed slowly over a 10-year period, and stabilized so that his right arm was virtually useless. The abnormal movements were accentuated by stress, and caused him to avoid social situations. The patient was diagnosed as having dystonia musculorum deformans and

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Edgar M. Housepian, William H. Unger, Timothy B. Scharff, William Thompson and Linda Dukore

has been the development of a low-cost color video-recording system for use in microneurosurgery. Materials and Method Apparatus The basic operating microscopes at the Neurological Institute have been the Zeiss OPMI 1 and OPMI 6, * the latter with motorized zoom magnification and focus. Both can be fitted with a Zeiss 50–50 beam splitter * to allow a stereo observation tube for the operating assistant and a monocular “C” mount cinephotographic accessory tube. While still and cine photography and high-resolution black-and-white television have been well

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Rafael G. Galera and Alberto C. Martinez

findings did not coincide with ours. Material and Method Thermographic studies were performed with the Swedish 665 AGA Thermovision unit. * This is a very sensitive (resolution capacity 0.2°C) and fast-operating apparatus in which the infrared radiation is detected by an indium-antimony crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen (−196°C). The thermal radiation is converted by the crystal into video signals which after amplification are transferred to the display unit and processed in the same manner as the image in a television receiver. The result is a picture of

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Ronald R. Tasker, Ian H. Rowe, Peter Hawrylyshyn and Leslie W. Organ

data in a series of data files, a lightweight portable video-data terminal is installed in the operating room interfaced by telephone with the University of Toronto computer and operated in an interactive mode. The series of programs stored in the computer permits the retrieval of the operative data. This includes the three-dimensional frame coordinates for the anterior and posterior commissures and the point on the septum pellucidum, the dorsal height of the thalamus, the angle of trajectory of the electrode in the anteroposterior direction, the degree of deviation

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Sumio Uematsu, Thomas D. Smith and A. Earl Walker

-scope display of the detected video signals associated with an initial echo (I), midline echo (M), and a pulse (O), which corresponds to the echo reflected from the skull on the side opposite the transducer. Fig. 1. Upper: A-scope echogram with a gate interval indicated by arrows . I = initial echo, M = midline echo, O = opposite echo. Baseline scale: large markers represent 10-mm and small, 2-mm intervals. Lower: Formation of a typical pulsatile echo signal from gated echo pulse sequence. The pulsatile character of the echo is observed as a regular

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Carotid-cavernous fistula

Demonstration of asymptomatic vascular “steal”

Barbara D. Barnes, Mark L. Rosenblum, Lawrence H. Pitts, David P. Winestock, Howard Parker and Mary Lou Nohr

occlusion. Materials and Methods The patient was positioned under a Searle Pho/Gamma IV scintillation camera * for an anterior Towne or left lateral view. A bolus of 15 to 30 mCi of the radionuclide, 99m technetium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA), was rapidly injected intravenously. Flow data were collected by a computer † in 1.25-second histograms (64 × 64 matrix) for 50 seconds after injection. For orientation and clinical review, a “movie-like” dynamic playback of the consecutive 1.25-second images was displayed in color on the video