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Don M. Long, J. Francis Hartmann and Lyle A. French

astrocytes, particularly in the pericapillary area. Changes in oligodendroglia and neurons are less evident and basically consist of abnormalities of intracytoplasmic elements. The extracellular space at the cortical level is not enlarged, but there is an often remarkable increase in this space at the level of the deep white matter. Axonal and myelin changes occur, but fixation difficulties in nonperfused material make them difficult to interpret. Originally ultrastructural studies indicated that edema was entirely intracellular. 30, 31 However, it has now been

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Edgar A. Bering Jr., Charles B. Wilson and Horace A. Norrell Jr.

and ultrastructural studies. Neurology, Minneap. , 1965 , 15 : 667 – 674 . Taylor , J. M., Levy , W. A., Herzog , I., and Scheinberg L. C. Prevention of experimental cerebral edema by corticosteroids. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies. Neurology, Minneap. , 1965, 15: 667–674. 78. Tochino , Y. , and Schanker , L. S. Active transport of quaternary ammonium compounds by the choroid plexus in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. , 1965 , 208 : 666 – 673 . Tochino , Y., and Schanker , L. S. Active transport of

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William F. McCormick, Henry W. Gerber and Wolfgang J. Mergner

. , Susen , A. F. , and Napolitano , L. Brain tumors in children: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Surgery, St Louis 1964 , 56 : 734 – 741 . Kyle , R. H., Susen , A. F., and Napolitano , L. Brain tumors in children: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Surgery, St Louis 1964, 56: 734–741. 16. Levy , L. F. , and Elvidge , A. R. Astrocytoma of the brain and spinal cord. A review of 176 cases, 1940–1949. J. Neurosurg. , 1956 , 13 : 413 – 443 . Levy , L. F., and Elvidge , A. R. Astrocytoma of the

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George J. Dohrmann and Paul C. Bucy

types were found in most human choroid plexuses, Type 1 (least subunits) predominated in the young, Type 2 in middle age, and Type 3 (most subunits) in advanced age. Dunn and Kernohan 13 also demonstrated an increase in the number of inclusions in older human choroidal epithelium. An exact sequence of events in inclusion formation cannot be derived from our observations. Type 3 inclusions are probably formed by a coalescence of pre-existing Type 2 and/or Type 1 inclusions. As in any ultrastructural study, only static views of an evolving process are seen. The

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Ecchordosis physaliphora

An electron microscopic study

Richard B. Wyatt, Sydney S. Schochet Jr. and William F. McCormick

, et al., 3 were not observed in these ecchordoses and have not been demonstrated in other ultrastructural studies of chordoma. Except for the presence of mitotic figures in chordoma, as illustrated by Murad and Murthy, 8 ecchordosis and chordoma are morphologically quite similar. No ultrastructural features accounting for the difference in biological behavior were observed in this study. References 1. Cancilla P , Morecki R , Hurwitt ES : Fine structure of a recurrent chordoma. Arch Neurol (Chicago) 11 : 289 – 295

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Charles R. Neblett, Thomas A. Waltz and David E. Anderson

children: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Surgery 56 : 734 – 741 , 1964 Kyle RH, Susen AF, Napolitano L: Brain tumors in children: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Surgery 56: 734–741, 1964 22. Meerkotter VA , Shear M : Multiple primordial cysts associated with bifid rib and ocular defects. Oral Surg 18 : 498 – 503 , 1964 Meerkotter VA, Shear M: Multiple primordial cysts associated with bifid rib and ocular defects. Oral Surg 18: 498–503, 1964 23. Mills J , Foulkes J

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R. O. Weller and Kenneth Shulman

, Wisniewski H : Histological and ultrastructural changes with experimental hydrocephalus in adult rabbits. Brain 92 : 819 – 828 , 1969 Weller RO, Wisniewski H: Histological and ultrastructural changes with experimental hydrocephalus in adult rabbits. Brain 92: 819–828, 1969 17. Weller RO , Wisniewski H , Shulman K , et al : Experimental hydrocephalus in young dogs: histological and ultrastructural study of the brain tissue damage. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 30 : 613 – 627 , 1971 Weller RO, Wisniewski H

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Hydrocephalus and congestive heart failure caused by intracranial arteriovenous malformations in infants Sten Cronqvist Lars Granholm Nils-Rune Lundström March 1972 36 3 249 254 10.3171/jns.1972.36.3.0249 Infantile hydrocephalus: clinical, histological, and ultrastructural study of brain damage R. O. Weller Kenneth Shulman March 1972 36 3 255 265 10.3171/jns.1972.36.3.0255 Radioactive tissue changes induced to control experimental hydrocephalus Martin H. Weiss Uros Roessmann March 1972 36 3 266 269 10

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Chardes A. Engh and Brian H. Schofield

body to the peripheral nerve ending is a prerequisite suggests that axon-mediated trophic influences from the nerve endings or from peripherally innervated tissues may be necessary for a return of normal perikaryal synthetic functions. 20 Hare and Hinsey (1940) 29 noted that chromatolytic changes fail to occur in dorsal root ganglia following section of their proximally directed axons which terminate within the central nervous system. This finding was subsequently confirmed by ultrastructural studies and also found to be characteristic of other bipolar sensory

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Eugene S. Flamm, M. Gazi Yasargil and Joseph Ransohoff II

the cerebral arteries of the rat: an ultrastructural study. Circ Res 26 : 635 – 646 , 1970 Iwayama T, Furness JB, Burnstock G: Dual adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the cerebral arteries of the rat: an ultrastructural study. Circ Res 26: 635–646, 1970 16. Kapp J , Mahaley MS Jr , Odom GL : Cerebral arterial spasm. Parts 1–3. J Neurosurg 29 : 331 – 356 , 1968 Kapp J, Mahaley MS Jr, Odom GL: Cerebral arterial spasm. Parts 1–3. J Neurosurg 29: 331–356, 1968 17. Kapp JP