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James W. Watts and Walter Freeman

I n 1938, we reported six cases of obsessive tension states following interruption of the frontal association pathways. We have continued our studies on these and similar cases and at the present time can amplify our conclusions based upon forty-five patients studied from six months to seven years after operation. Prefrontal lobotomy relieves nervous tension and obsessive thinking. Following operation the patient may still cling to the idea that he has tuberculosis or syphilis or that his Eustachian tube is stopped up. A woman may look in the mirror and see

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David L. Reeves and Cecil F. Baisinger

it appeared, and that it was a chronic, progressive and highly fatal entity. In 1930 Rand 17 reported two cases of coccidioidal granuloma simulating spinal cord tumor, and emphasized the similarity of the disease to tuberculosis and its frequent confusion with it. The more common benign pulmonary disease caused by this fungus was not appreciated until its description by Gifford 8 and Dickson 5 in 1936 and 1937. Since that time other comprehensive reports on this relatively mild manifestation of the infection have been written by Faber, Smith and Dickson, 6

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Arthur B. Soule Jr.

been reported as having produced Charcot joints are tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, trauma to the spinal cord, cauda equina, dorsal nerve roots and peripheral nerves, congenital malformations of the spine (such as spina bifida), myelitis, lead poisoning, hemiplegia following cerebral hemorrhage, pressure on the cord or cauda equina from tumors or tuberculosis of the spine, progressive muscular atrophy (both the Aran-Duchenne type or chronic poliomyelitis and the spastic type or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), typhoid fever, leprosy and peripheral neuritis. 1, 2, 4, 11

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Harold C. Voris

examination. The non-purulent group was considered due to an excess of cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid spaces. Warrington 13 in 1914 described five groups of intracranial serous effusions of inflammatory origin: those due to otitis media, to tuberculosis, to specific fever, to head injury, and finally an unexplained group. As his title indicates, he considered a near or distant focus of infection as the primary origin. Claude 2 discussed the subject thoroughly. He gave trauma, infection, and encephalitis as the etiologic factors and emphasized the value of air

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Ventricular Electroencephalography

A Description of the Technique

Margaret Lennox and Theodore C. Ruch

. Several monkeys died of tuberculosis, and postmortem examination of the brain revealed no lesions. The wires have been left in place in the monkeys for six hours without apparent symptoms. Electrical activity as recorded by ventricular leads usually parallels cortical activity. Under certain conditions, however, recordings of ventricle to ear and of ventricle to ventricle are entirely different from cortical activity ( Fig. 3 ). From this fact we assume that the ventricular leads record the electrical activity of the surrounding subcortical structures and not of the

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Leonard A. Titrud

operation to hold the left arm in flexion at the elbow and dorsiflexion at the wrist. The cast was worn for 5 weeks. Her convalescence was complicated by some drainage from the wound. After the wound healed and the cast was removed, a left wrist drop and a complete left radial nerve paralysis below the elbow persisted. Her past medical history was negative except for the complaint of recurrent hayfever and a healed pulmonary tuberculosis. Examination On admission she was found to be in good general physical condition. Chest x-ray revealed a calcified Ghon

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Eldridge Campbell and Christian Keedy

the case of a man with typical hemifacial spasm of approximately a year's duration who died as a result of pulmonary tuberculosis. He had not been deaf in either ear. Autopsy examination of the brain disclosed a small cherry-sized aneurysm of the left vertebral artery which lay against the left 7th and 8th nerves, but which did not compress the 9th ( Fig. 3 ). Microscopic examination of the left facial and auditory nerves was reported to have disclosed no abnormality. Fig. 3. Aneurysm of the left vertebral artery compressing the 7th cranial nerve as

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Donald D. Matson, Eben Alexander Jr. and Paul Weiss

extremity were employed. Fig. 6. The vein graft has been drawn down over the blood clot bridging the gap; no sutures are used to hold this in position. The peroneal division of the nerve lies in its normal position. The operation is now complete and the wound is closed in layers with silk sutures. Fifteen animals were operated on by this technique in the present series. One animal died 11 days after operation, following induction of nembutal anesthesia for another operative procedure, not connected with the nerve suture. One animal died of tuberculosis 81

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John D. French and Paul C. Bucy

side, 5 relatives died of tuberculosis and, on the paternal side, 4 relatives, including the father, died of cancer. Physical Examination . Temperature 98, pulse 72, respiration 20, and blood pressure 110/80. The patient was well nourished but appeared chronically ill. General physical findings were not otherwise remarkable. On neurological examination, she was well oriented and cooperative but showed some memory deficiency. Visual acuity was sufficient only for light perception. A papilledema of 6 D. was present. There was a slight external strabismus but ocular

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Two Cases of Cerebral Abscess of Unusual Nature

Tuberculous Abscess and Suppurated Hydatid Cyst

S. Obrador and P. Urquiza

partial removal of the tumor, followed by daily lumbar and ventricular injections of streptomycin (50–100 mg. doses) for 8 weeks. Although the patient died 3 months after operation with a generalized and impressive spread of tuberculosis in the lungs and elsewhere, autopsy showed complete absence of the meningitis or dissemination in the pathways of the cerebrospinal fluid that, in our experience, usually occurs after operations for tuberculomas of the cerebellum. We have the impression that streptomycin may be in the future a powerful ally of our surgical technique in