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Xue-song Liu, Chao You, Ma Lu and Jia-gang Liu

A growing skull fracture is a rare but significant complication of pediatric head trauma, occurring almost exclusively in children who are younger than 3 years of age. 20 , 26 , 33 It usually develops from a linear skull fracture, as sometimes occurs in a closed-head injury. Therefore, it is often misdiagnosed or the treatment is either wrong or delayed. During the last 3 decades, several cases have provided many theories of GSF pathogenesis. However, controversy over diagnostic methods and treatment strategy always exists. The purpose of this study

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Jason Rockhill, Maciej Mrugala and Marc C. Chamberlain

partial seizures, paraparesis posterior parasagittal homonymous hemianopsia anterior parasagittal neurobehavioral syndrome sphenoid wing visual loss, trigeminal dysfunction, ophthalmo-plegia olfactory groove anosmia, dementia suprasellar bitemporal hemianopia tentorial headache, vertigo, ataxia Evaluation of Imaging Studies Brain imaging with contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging is the most common method of diagnosing, monitoring, and evaluating response to treatment ( Table 4 ). Plain x-ray films, most often obtained for

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Joseph M. Piepmeier

growth rate. Growth kinetics studies and cytogenetic analyses of low-grade lesions support this conclusion. 7–9, 15 However, astrocytic tumors may develop ominous malignant characteristics, and as many as 50% of surgically treated lesions evolve into anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas. 11 At this time, there is no reliable method that can be used to predict this change in the tumor's biological activity. There have been relatively few reports that have evaluated the current treatment of these lesions. Based on past experience, it appears that some of these

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Nitin Agarwal, Nihar B. Gala, Reza J. Karimi, Roger E. Turbin, Chirag D. Gandhi and Charles J. Prestigiacomo

C entral retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmological emergency that can result in complete blindness in the affected eye if untreated. 3 , 5 , 6 , 17 , 29 , 38 , 41 , 42 , 45 It is a result of sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer, which is considered to be a part of the CNS. This condition was first described in 1859 by Albrecht von Graefe, a famous German ophthalmologist known for his contributions in glaucoma and cataract treatment. 44 Since then, there has been an abundant accumulation of literature regarding the

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Hermann Neugebauer, Jens Witsch, Klaus Zweckberger and Eric Jüttler

T he first case reports involving patients with space-occupying cerebellar infarcts date back to the end of the 19th century. 80 The first case reports of surgical treatment by craniectomy were published independently but almost simultaneously in 1956 by Fairburn and Olivier 26 and Lindgren. 73 As of the writing of this study, 115 original papers on space-occupying cerebellar stroke including a total of over 750 patients have been published (see Table 3 ). The exact number of patients who develop space-occupying edema after cerebellar infarction is

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Daniel T. Nagasawa, Zachary A. Smith, Nicole Cremer, Christina Fong, Daniel C. Lu and Isaac Yang

. 1. Sagittal T2-weighted MR image demonstrating a cervical intramedullary ependymoma. Reprinted with permission from Kelleher MO, et al: J Neurosurg Spine 8: 215–221, 2008. While the prognosis for spinal ependymomas is generally very good, there are a number of potential complications associated with their treatment that necessitate a greater awareness. As such, identification and prevention of these key issues may allow for improved outcomes in this patient population. Resections and Progression-Free Survival Although surgery was once reserved for

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Ranjith Babu, Jeffrey Hatef, Roger E. McLendon, Thomas J. Cummings, John H. Sampson, Allan H. Friedman and Cory Adamson

R habdoid glioblastoma, also reported as GB with rhabdoid features, is an exceedingly aggressive tumor with poor survival. Due to its rarity, it has not been characterized, and reported treatments have been ineffective. Rhabdoid tumors were first described as a subtype of the Wilms tumor of the kidney. Although they were termed “rhabdoid” due to phenotypic homology with rhabdomyosarcoma, they have been shown to be a separate entity occurring in a variety of different tissues. 2 The atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor was the first diagnosed rhabdoid tumor of

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Justiina Huhtakangas, Martin Lehecka, Hanna Lehto, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, Mika Niemelä and Riku Kivisaari

P osterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms along the internal carotid artery (ICA; incidence range among ruptured intracranial aneurysms 13%–25%) 11 , 23 , 27 , 38 are often seen as fairly uncomplicated lesions that are suitable for both neurosurgical and endovascular treatment. Since the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), the treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms has shifted toward endovascular treatment. 27 However, a large number of patients have been treated surgically as well. Even though these lesions are encountered

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Andrei F. Joaquim and Alpesh A. Patel

) Type III, fracture extending into the body of the axis, possibly also involving the atlantoaxial joint. Type II fractures are the most common odontoid fracture, occurring in 65%–74% of the cases. 3 , 6 , 28 These fractures have similar biomechanical properties as transverse ligament injuries, i.e., a loss of the translational restriction of C-1 on C-2, creating the potential for spinal cord injury and severe late craniocervical deformities when healing is notobtained. 3 , 21 , 22 , 27 Treatment strategies for odontoid fractures can vary from nonoperative

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Ronit Agid, Karel TerBrugge, Georges Rodesch, Tommy Andersson and Michael Söderman

D ural arteriovenous fistulas in the anterior cranial fossa are rare. 9 , 14 , 22 They usually receive arterial blood supply from ethmoidal branches of the OphAs. As there is no dural sinus in this location, these fistulas drain directly into the frontal cortical veins and secondarily into a sinus. They frequently rupture and therefore require treatment. 4 , 5 , 19 , 20 Clinically, patients often present with intracranial hemorrhage, whereas others present with headaches, seizures, or ocular symptoms. Of course, asymptomatic fistulas can be incidentally