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Zaid Aljuboori, Tyler Ball, and Haring Nauta

Transcript The modified McKenzie procedure for the treatment of fixed painful torticollis. 1:20 Overview of the Anatomy of the Paraspinal and Suboccipital Muscles 1 • The semispinalis capitis and splenius capitis. The first originates from the cervical facets and transverse processes and the second from the cervical transverse processes. The occiput is the insertion site for both muscles. They are innervated by the dorsal primary rami of C2 and C3 and act to extend and rotate the head. • The rectus capitis (major and minor). The major originates from the C2

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Nicholas Boyko, Melissa Ann Eppinger, Deborah Straka-DeMarco, and Catherine Anne Mazzola

C ongenital torticollis presents with lateral neck flexion and neck rotation to the opposite side, as shown in Fig. 1 . The incidence of torticollis has been reported to be as high as 8.2%–16%, 9 , 15 but it is more commonly reported as between 0.3% and 3.92%. 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 14 , 16 The cause of congenital torticollis may be due to an abnormal position of the intrauterine fetus or fetal head descent causing trauma to the sternocleidomastoid muscle or its innervation. 7 , 9 Birth trauma may result in compartment syndrome, which is characterized by ischemia

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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, J. Eric Ahlskog, Joseph Y. Matsumoto, Mary A. Swenson, Robyn L. McClelland, and Dudley H. Davis

S pasmodic torticollis is the most common form of focal dystonia, characterized by deviation of the neck due to involuntary contraction of cervical muscles. Intermittent phasic spasms of neck muscles may be superimposed on the tonic muscle contraction state, causing repetitive jerking of the head. 11, 27, 28 The vectors of head and neck deviation vary from patient to patient, but generally fall into the categories of rotational torticollis, laterocollis, retrocollis, anterocollis, and their various combinations. 19, 20 Spasmodic torticollis not only results

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Theresa E. Pretto, Arif Dalvi, Un Jung Kang, and Richard D. Penn

, 37 The diversity of dystonic symptoms and rarity of disease occurrence make well-controlled clinical trials difficult. With the previous success of pallidotomy for dystonia, the GPI has become the target of choice for electrical stimulation of all forms of dystonia, including secondary dystonia and torticollis. 3 , 10 , 13 , 17 , 25 , 27 , 30–33 , 35 Deep brain stimulation has recently been shown to be an effective treatment for primary DYT1 dystonia. A few case reports and small case series have demonstrated a varied benefit of electrical stimulation for the

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Neurosurgical Forum: Letters to the Editor To The Editor Takaomi Taira , M.D., Ph.D. Neurological Institute Tokyo Women's Medical University Tokyo, Japan 170 172 Abstract Object. Selective peripheral denervation is currently the primary surgical treatment for intractable cervical dystonia. The authors assessed preoperative factors to determine which, if any, correlated with outcomes in patients with torticollis who had undergone this procedure. Methods. The records of 168 consecutive patients who had

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Neurosurgical Forum: Letters to the Editor To The Editor Peter J. Jannetta , M.D. University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 725 727 I am writing regarding the recent contribution by Pagni, et al. (Pagni CA, Naddeo M, Faccani G: Spasmodic torticollis due to neurovascular compression of the 11th cranial nerve. Case report. J Neurosurg 63: 789–791, November, 1985). Several points of varying importance may be made concerning this article. To begin with, it is always tenuous to describe a “first.” In

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Allan H. Friedman, Blaine S. Nashold Jr., Robbin Sharp, Franco Caputi, and Jose Arruda

S pasmodic torticollis, characterized by involuntary tonic or clonic muscle movements of the neck, has puzzled physicians for centuries. The term “torticollis” is said to have been coined by Rabelais, a 16th century French Benedictine, and a vivid description of people afflicted with this disease is contained in Dante's Inferno , written in the 13th century. 32 Over 50 years ago, Finney and Hughson 13 lamented, “Today we are apparently as far from knowing the real cause of torticollis as were surgeons one hundred years ago.” In recent years, spasmodic

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Carlo A. Pagni, Michele Naddeo, and Giuliano Faccani

S pasmodic torticollis is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary spasm of various muscles. The symptoms usually begin on one side. It has been defined as a rotated position of the head caused by clonic or tonic contractions of the cervical muscles, and is a symptom of either an organic disease of the nervous system or hysteria. Both clonic and tonic contractions may occur in the same patient. 10, 21 Patients suffering from spasmodic torticollis have always presented a problem for the psychiatrist, neurologist, or neurosurgeon, especially when

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Eldon L. Foltz, Lawrence M. Knopp, and Arthur A. Ward Jr.

S pasmodic torticollis is an involuntary hyperkinesis involving the muscles of the neck primarily on one side. Characteristically, paroxysms of moderate to severe contractions of the muscles occur which may be painful, and the resulting deformities of rotation of the head and flexion of the neck may be functionally incapacitating. The muscles of the neck mainly involved in this abnormal involuntary movement are the sternocleidomastoid, the trapezius, the splenius, and the scalenes, 1, 7 though almost all the ipsilateral muscles are involved to some degree. 13

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Neurosurgical Forum To The Editor Zdeněk Mraček , M.D. Charles University Plzeň, Czechoslovakia 828 828 To the increasing discussion in the Journal of Neurosurgery about neurovascular compression as a cause of spasmodic torticollis, 1–5, 7 I should like to add personal experiences from an allied area. While performing Sjöqvist's tractotomy, I found five patients with an enlarged loop of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery which pressed against the descending spinal trigeminal tract, causing some