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Fabio Grassia, Andrew V. Poliakov, Sandra L. Poliachik, Kaitlyn Casimo, Seth D. Friedman, Hillary Shurtleff, Carlo Giussani, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Jason S. Hauptman

emerging addition to the imaging armamentarium. Several studies have addressed the question of fcMRI connectivity in epilepsy, 5 including in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. 10 These studies, summarized in Mankinen et al., 10 compared connectivity in patients versus healthy controls, thus using a between-subjects design. Although these studies found connectivity abnormalities in a number of networks at a population level, they did not address lateralizing changes in resting-state fcMRI in the individual patient. Constable et al. recently reviewed the potential use

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Ross P. Carne, Terence J. O'Brien, Christine J. Kilpatrick, Lachlan R. MacGregor, Rodney J. Hicks, Michael A. Murphy, Stephen C. Bowden, Andrew H. Kaye and Mark J. Cook

We were interested to read the article by Cohen-Gadol AA, et al. (Cohen-Gadol AA, Bradley C, Williamson A, et al: Normal magnetic resonance imaging and medial temporal lobe epilepsy: the clinical syndrome of paradoxical temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosurg 102: 902–909, May, 2005). We draw the attention of the authors to the recent study published by our group1 in which a similar group of patients with nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy was reported. Characteristics of patients in this group included electroclinically well-lateralized temporal lobe seizures

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Kensuke Kawai, Ichiro Suzuki, Hiroki Kurita, Masahiro Shin, Nobutaka Arai and Takaaki Kirino

animal model of hippocampal epilepsy. Neurosurgery 46: 157–168, 2000 10. Regis J , Bartolomei F , Rey M , et al : Gamma knife surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 40 : 1551 – 1556 , 1999 Regis J, Bartolomei F, Rey M, et al: Gamma knife surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 40: 1551–1556, 1999 11. Regis J , Peragui JC , Rey M , et al : First selective amygdalohippocampal radiosurgery for ‘mesial temporal lobe epilepsy’. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg

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Warren Boling, Frederick Andermann, David Reutens, François Dubeau, Laetitia Caporicci and André Olivier

. Engel J Jr (ed): Surgical Treatment of the Epilepsies , ed 2 . New York : Raven Press Ltd. , 1993 , pp 727 – 729 Engel J Jr (ed): Surgical Treatment of the Epilepsies, ed 2. New York: Raven Press Ltd., 1993, pp 727–729 16. Falconer MA , Serafetinides EA : A follow-up study of surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26 : 154 – 165 , 1963 Falconer MA, Serafetinides EA: A follow-up study of surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26: 154–165, 1963

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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Christopher C. Bradley, Anne Williamson, Jung H. Kim, Michael Westerveld, Robert B. Duckrow and Dennis D. Spencer

are shown in Fig. 2D . In this analysis, cells from the PTLE group were significantly less excitable than those from the MTS group (p < 0.05). Discussion Medial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults. The presence of hippocampal atrophy and a signal change on MR images associated with other concordant preoperative MTLE findings is consistent with the pathological finding of MTS. In the syndrome of MTLE, the medial temporal structures (hippocampus, amygdala, and perihippocampal/entorhinal cortex) represent the epileptogenic

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Victoria L. Morgan, Baxter P. Rogers, Hernán F. J. González, Sarah E. Goodale and Dario J. Englot

T emporal lobe epilepsy is one of the most common forms of epilepsy. 8 Antiepileptic medication is successful in treating approximately 60%–70% of these patients. 9 , 22 In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) the gold standard clinical assessments identify the hippocampus as the seizure focus. Resection of this region is a potential treatment for individuals in whom the disease is drug refractory. However, even in these seemingly homogeneous patients with a well-defined seizure focus, seizure freedom rates after surgery range from approximately 58% 32 to 80

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Masaki Iwasaki, Nobukazu Nakasato, Hiroyoshi Suzuki and Teiji Tominaga

. Disclaimer The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper. References 1 Cohen-Gadol AA , Bradley CC , Williamson A , Kim JH , Westerveld M , Duckrow RB , : Normal magnetic resonance imaging and medial temporal lobe epilepsy: the clinical syndrome of paradoxical temporal lobe epilepsy . J Neurosurg 102 : 902 – 909 , 2005 2 Eriksson SH , Thom M , Bartlett PA , Symms MR , McEvoy AW , Sisodiya SM , : PROPELLER MRI visualizes detailed

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Kristian Aquilina, Dave F. Clarke, James W. Wheless and Frederick A. Boop

S everal reports describe the association of temporal lobe epilepsy with encephaloceles of the middle cranial fossa. 3 , 6 , 9 , 13–19 All reported cases exhibited definite temporal lobe herniations through defects in the bone constituting the anteroinferior part of the middle cranial fossa floor, occurring in young to middle-aged adults. We present the case of an adolescent with multiple microencephaloceles, each up to 4 mm in diameter, occurring through adjacent defects in the dura mater of the anterolateral middle fossa floor, and associated with an

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Christian Dorfer, Thomas Czech, Susanne Aull-Watschinger, Christoph Baumgartner, Rebekka Jung, Gregor Kasprian, Klaus Novak, Susanne Pirker, Birgit Seidl, Harald Stefanits, Karin Trimmel and Ekaterina Pataraia

eligible for selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE). 62 We present here the experience at our center in using the transsylvian SAHE in patients deemed eligible for selective resection; the same epileptological team and the same surgeon performed all resections. Methods Patients We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on 427 adults who had undergone resective surgery for medically refractory epilepsy at the Vienna Epilepsy Program between July 1994 and December 2014. Of these patients, 295 suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy not associated with

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Joseph T. King Jr., Michael R. Sperling, Amy C. Justice and Michael J. O'Connor

T here are an estimated 400,000 people with epilepsy in the U.S. who continue to have seizures despite medical management with antiepileptic medications. 34 Some of these patients are candidates for epilepsy surgery, which entails the localization and surgical removal of epileptogenic tissue. Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is the most common operation for refractory epilepsy. 25 Numerous series have demonstrated the effectiveness of this procedure in reducing or eliminating seizures in appropriately selected patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. 10, 14