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Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

approach should be based on BSCM anatomy and that a taxonomy for these lesions could improve clinical decision-making and patient outcomes. BSCMs can be categorized into 3 primary types on the basis of their location in the midbrain, pons, or medulla, and they can also be categorized into subtypes within these 3 regions. A similar taxonomy was developed for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that consists of 7 AVM types (frontal, temporal, parieto-occipital, periventricular, deep, brainstem, and cerebellar) and 4 to 6 subtypes based on the brain surface to which

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Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

I n Part 2 of this 2-part series on the taxonomy of pontine cavernous malformations (CMs), we describe subtypes 4–6 of these lesions. A complete overview of the 6 pontine subtypes appears in Part 1 of this series. In brief, the pons lies between the midbrain and medulla and is the largest of the 3 brainstem parts. 1 , 2 It is the most common site of brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) 3 and accounts for about 60% of such lesions in our experience. Approaches to pontine CMs are based on the location where the lesion presents to a pial or ependymal

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Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

should a BSCM be approached for resection? The surgical approach is based on where the BSCM presents to a pial or ependymal surface and which approach exposes that spot, offering the optimal surgical trajectory ascertained by simple concepts such as the 2-point method. 22 , 23 This critical decision should be based on an anatomical taxonomy that improves clinical decision-making and patient outcomes. Although BSCMs are highly variable in size, shape, and position, they are naturally categorized into 3 types according to location: midbrain, pons, and medulla. 22

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Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

-transventricular approach or laterally through a far lateral approach. 4 , 5 Although there are important variations of these 2 approaches, this limited menu makes surgical approach selection simpler for medullary lesions than other BSCMs. An anatomical taxonomy for these lesions may improve both clinical decision-making and patient outcomes. Although BSCMs are naturally categorized into 3 types on the basis of their location in the midbrain, pons, and medulla, they can be further categorized into subtypes within these 3 regions. A similar taxonomy has been developed for brain

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Kristopher T. Kahle, Daniel Duran, and Edward R. Smith

practice of medicine. Neurosurgery has rapidly adapted to this new approach, with brilliant advances leading the way in a range of subspecialities. The dynamic nature of this field, while exciting, can challenge the ability of practitioners to remain abreast of current developments and advances relevant to their patients. In this article, we provide a review of how molecular genetic techniques are used in clinical practice, followed by a proposal—analogous to the paradigm shift ongoing in the field of neuro-oncology with brain tumor taxonomy—for a novel classification

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Wenya Linda Bi, Malak Abedalthagafi, Peleg Horowitz, Pankaj K. Agarwalla, Yu Mei, Ayal A. Aizer, Ryan Brewster, Gavin P. Dunn, Ossama Al-Mefty, Brian M. Alexander, Sandro Santagata, Rameen Beroukhim, and Ian F. Dunn

therapeutic strategies. Molecular taxonomy has transformed the clinical management of several tumors in recent decades. Within the CNS, medulloblastomas, glioblastomas, and ependymomas provide benchmarks for integrating molecular diagnoses with subsequent decisions for adjuvant treatment and prognostication. 13 , 64 , 101 Histological entities that are classically clustered together are partitioned into distinct disease subgroups, with characteristic patient demographics, genomic signatures, and clinical course. Molecular classification of meningiomas has also been

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Dimitri Benner, Benjamin K. Hendricks, Arnau Benet, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lea Scherschinski, Visish M. Srinivasan, Joshua S. Catapano, Peter M. Lawrence, Mark Schornak, and Michael T. Lawton

transsylvian dissection of an anterior midbrain BSCM requires a choice between the carotid-oculomotor triangle for interpeduncular lesions and the oculomotor-tentorial triangle for peduncular lesions. Thus, knowledge and understanding of anatomical triangles add specificity to the description of the approach and further guide the neurosurgeon during the final approach to the lesion. This report presents a system of triangles specifically developed to access BSCMs. This triangle system complements our BSCM taxonomy that defines dissection routes to target lesions and

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Andrew A. Ronald, Vineeth Sadda, Nicholas M. Rabah, and Michael P. Steinmetz

Patient complaints were analyzed and broken down into distinct issues to account for the fact that a patient complaint could reference more than one issue. Each complaint and its corresponding issues were categorized using an established coding taxonomy ( Table 1 ). 9 Issues were also assigned a profession code (unspecified or general, physician, midlevel provider, nursing staff, administrative and support staff, and allied clinical health professions) to identify the provider group referenced in the complaint. 10 TABLE 1. Patient complaint categorization taxonomy

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Mark Hamilton, John Peter Gruen, and Mark G. Luciano

, or infection); and 4) patients with suspected or proven idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). 1 The development of a comprehensive standardized taxonomy and nomenclature should be an important objective for future adult hydrocephalus research, and the use of a simple clinically relevant organizational system is essential to start this process. Standardized taxonomy will allow clearer communication and the opportunity to reach a better understanding of the adult hydrocephalus patient population, and it will help us improve the use of diagnostic

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Daniel L. Barrow

existing schemes and become universally accepted, a proposed classification should incorporate newly discovered information, remain logical, and, preferably, convey information in an uncomplicated fashion. The evolution of classification systems is illustrated by the history of taxonomy, the classification of living things. In the world of biology, the first great taxonomist was Aristotle. Prior to Aristotle, taxonomy was purely descriptive—living things were divided into large groups such as fish, birds, and mammals. Aristotle classified a living thing by its nature