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Akshitkumar M. Mistry, Nishit Mummareddy, Travis S. CreveCoeur, Jock C. Lillard, Brandy N. Vaughn, Jean-Nicolas Gallant, Andrew T. Hale, Natalie Griffin, John C. Wellons III, David D. Limbrick Jr., Paul Klimo Jr. and Robert P. Naftel

T he subventricular zone (SVZ) is a growth factor–rich niche in the brain that contains neural stem cells. 1 , 2 Recently, many studies have shed light on the role the SVZ plays in gliomagenesis and in influencing glioma pathobiology. Pretreatment invasion of the SVZ niche by glioblastoma (GBM) independently leads to its increased malignancy, as evidenced by therapy resistance 3 and significantly greater patient mortality. 4–10 However, all of these observations have been made in adults. Whether invasion of the SVZ by high-grade gliomas (HGGs) prior to

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Todd M. Savarese, Taichang Jang, Hoi Pang Low, Rebecca Salmonsen, N. Scott Litofsky, Zdenka Matijasevic, Alonzo H. Ross and Lawrence D. Recht

-natal rat brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 24: 9–20, 1998 5. Brazel CY , Romanko MJ , Rothstein RP , Levison SW : Roles of the mammalian subventricular zone in brain development. Prog Neurobiol 69 : 49 – 69 , 2003 Brazel CY, Romanko MJ, Rothstein RP, Levison SW: Roles of the mammalian subventricular zone in brain development. Prog Neurobiol 69: 49–69, 2003 6. Brenner AJ , Stampfer MR , Aldaz CM : Increased p16 expression with first senescence arrest in human mammary epithelial cells and

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Sabrina R. Taylor, Colin Smith, Brent T. Harris, Beth A. Costine and Ann-Christine Duhaime

However, both animals and humans demonstrate some recovery of neurological function and intellectual ability after injury. 3 , 21 , 22 While the processes leading to recovery have not been fully ascertained, one possible mechanism may relate to the brain's innate ability to continuously generate new neurons in specific brain regions. There are 2 regions in which the process of neurogenesis is conserved throughout the lifespan of most mammalian species: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. 1 , 14 , 20

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Dunyue Lu, Asim Mahmood, Ruilan Zhang, Yi Li and Michael Chopp

hypothesis that the NO donor DETA/NONOate may be useful to treat TBI. Acknowledgment We thank Sue MacPhee for her excellent assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. References 1. Alvarez-Buylla A , Garcia-Verdugo JM : Neurogenesis in adult subventricular zone. J Neurosci 22 : 629 – 634 , 2002 Alvarez-Buylla A, Garcia-Verdugo JM: Neurogenesis in adult subventricular zone. J Neurosci 22: 629–634, 2002 2. Alvarez-Buylla A , Seri B , Doetsch F : Identification of neural stem cells

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Bart Roelf Jan van Dijken, Peter Jan van Laar, Chao Li, Jiun-Lin Yan, Natalie Rosella Boonzaier, Stephen John Price, FCRS and Anouk van der Hoorn

possible explanation could lie within the subventricular zone (SVZ), a neurogenic stem cell niche located within the ventricle wall. 14 Isolation of stem cell–like cells from human GBM samples with similar properties to SVZ stem cells has led to suggestions that the SVZ might initiate gliomagenesis in a subgroup of patients. 17 , 37 Previous studies have shown that stem cell–derived GBMs were resistant to current therapy strategies. 8 , 33 Ventricle-contacting GBMs could thus demonstrate more aggressive behavior than noncontacting GBMs due to a different cell

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Kenichiro Muraoka, Tetsuro Shingo, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Wen Ji Yuen, Takashi Uozumi, Toshihiro Matsui, Yasuyuki Miyoshi and Isao Date

recombinant; PeproTech). Adult NPC Cultures Adult rats were killed by decapitation after anesthesia had been induced with intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbitol (30 mg/kg). The brains were dissected, placed in sterile PBS containing 1% penicillin/streptomycin solution on ice, and transferred to a sterile tissue culture hood. The subventricular zone was then dissected grossly. Each whole brain was placed in a brain matrix, and two coronal cuts were made, the first posterior to the rhinal fissure and the second anterior to the hippocampus. The resulting

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Sunao Takemura, Takamasa Kayama, Atsushi Kuge, Hasmat Ali, Yasuaki Kokubo, Shinya Sato, Hideyuki Kamii, Kaoru Goto and Takashi Yoshimoto

depicting the regions used for cell counting. Left: Subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (LV). Right: Subgranular zone of the hippocampal DG. Alv = alveus of hippocampus; cg = cingulum; d = dorsal hippocampal commissure; df = dorsal fornix; D3 = dorsal third ventricle; i = fimbria of hippocampus; M = medial habenular nucleus; sm = stria medullaris; ZL = zona limitans. Reprinted from The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, Paxinos G, Watson C, 1998, with permission from Elsevier. Statistical Analysis Results were expressed as the means ± standard

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Nicholas C. Bambakidis, Mary Petrullis, Kui Xu, Brian Rothstein, Ioannis Karampelas, Youzhi Kuang, Warren R. Selman, Joseph C. LaManna and Robert H. Miller

F , Fishell G : Hedgehog signaling in the subventricular zone is required for both the maintenance of stem cells and the migration of newborn neurons . J Neurosci 27 : 5936 – 5947 , 2007 5 Bambakidis NC , Horn EM , Nakaji P , Theodore N , Bless E , Dellovade T , : Endogenous stem cell proliferation induced by intravenous hedgehog agonist administration after contusion in the adult rat spinal cord. Laboratory investigation . J Neurosurg Spine 10 : 171 – 176 , 2009 6 Bambakidis NC , Miller RH : Transplantation of

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Jorge A. González-Martínez, William E. Bingaman, Steven A. Toms and Imad M. Najm

, postnatal neurogenesis could generate inhibitory interneurons, which would migrate and integrate into the abnormal epileptic circuits to suppress their excitatory activity. References 1 Altman J , Das GD : Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats . J Comp Neurol 124 : 319 – 335 , 1965 2 Alvarez-Buylla A , Garcia-Verdugo JM : Neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone . J Neurosci 22 : 629 – 634 , 2002 3 Alvarez-Buylla A , Garcia-Verdugo JM , Tramontin AD : A unified hypothesis on the

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Yuxia Han, Don Seyfried, Yuling Meng, Dongmei Yang, Lonni Schultz, Michael Chopp and Donald Seyfried

boundary zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) were digitized and counted and the counts from multiple fields of view were converted to units of cell number/mm 2 . The same process was applied to quantification of EBA- and Map2-positive cells. TUJ1 and DCX were quantified as percentage of positive area (above threshold) per field of view. For quantification of vessels, the number of EBA-positive vessels was measured in 8 fields of view within the hemorrhagic boundary zone and SVZ. Data are presented as the density of EBA-immunoreactive vessels relative to the area (vessels