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Kaith K. Almefty, Andrew F. Ducruet, R. Webster Crowley, Ruth Bristol, Sean D. Lavine and Felipe C. Albuquerque

WH , Koh YJ , Chun SI : Nevus sebaceus syndrome associated with intracranial arteriovenous malformation . Int J Dermatol 26 : 382 – 384 , 1987 7 Kotulska K , Jurkiewcz E , Jóźwiak S , Kuczyński D : Epidermal nevus syndrome and intraspinal hemorrhage . Brain Dev 28 : 541 – 543 , 2006 8 Maramattom BV , Cohen-Gadol AA , Wijdicks EF , Kallmes D : Segmental cutaneous hemangioma and spinal arteriovenous malformation (Cobb syndrome). Case report and historical perspective . J Neurosurg Spine 3 : 249 – 252 , 2005 9 Menascu

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John L. Doppman, Giovanni Di Chiro, Andrew J. Dwyer, Joseph L. Frank and Edward H. Oldfield

11. Theron J , Cosgrove R , Melanson D , et al : Spinal arteriovenous malformations: advances in therapeutic embolization. Radiology 158 : 163 – 169 , 1986 Theron J, Cosgrove R, Melanson D, et al: Spinal arteriovenous malformations: advances in therapeutic embolization. Radiology 158: 163–169, 1986 12. Yaşargil MG , DeLong B , Guarnaschelli JJ : Complete microsurgical excision of cervical extramedullary and intramedullary vascular malformation. Surg Neurol 4 : 211 – 224 , 1975

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Joseph R. Mausen and Roberto C. Heros

. Distinguishing the relative contributions of these two potential sources remains difficult. Fig. 2. Proposed pathophysiological interactions between spinal stenosis and spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Either lesion can contribute to mass effect or venous hypertension, which in turn can further complicate each other. The clinical result in either case is the syndrome of spinal claudication. The venous hypertension hypothesis may also offer an explanation for the deterioration seen in the first case after each laminectomy, which was performed with the

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Shivanand P. Lad, Justin G. Santarelli, Chirag G. Patil, Gary K. Steinberg and Maxwell Boakye

-center experience in a series of 17 patients . J Neurosurg Spine 7 : 478 – 485 , 2007 4 Detweiler PW , Porter RW , Spetzler RF : Spinal arteriovenous malformations . Neurosurg Clin N Am 10 : 89 – 100 , 1999 5 Ferch RD , Morgan MK , Sears WR : Spinal arteriovenous malformations: a review with case illustrations . J Clin Neurosci 8 : 299 – 304 , 2001 6 Heros RC , Debrun GM , Ojemann RG , Lasjaunias PL , Naessens PJ : Direct spinal arteriovenous fistula: a new type of spinal AVM. Case report . J Neurosurg 64 : 134 – 139 , 1986

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C. Craig Heindel, Gordon S. Dugger and Faustino C. Guinto

✓ A report of a patient with a spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) supplied from the right hypogastric artery is presented to emphasize the importance of thorough angiographic investigation when a spinal AVM is suspected.

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Issam A. Awad and Gene H. Barnett

T he mechanisms of nonhemorrhagic neurological deterioration in the setting of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are not well understood. 1–4 In the absence of hemorrhage and/or demonstrated cord compression, the role of urgent surgical intervention is not clear. It has been suggested that surgery might at best arrest neurological deterioration, but would not be expected to reverse it. 1, 6 We report a case of spinal AVM with rapid nonhemorrhagic neurological deterioration to dense paraplegia following lumbar puncture, with favorable response to

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Bruce Rosenblum, Edward H. Oldfield, John L. Doppman and Giovanni Di Chiro

A lthough spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) are relatively rare, they are important clinical entities because they produce considerable morbidity. Early classification of spinal AVM's relied upon descriptive pathological analyses. 4, 14, 24 Later classification was based on the radiographic appearance at selective spinal angiography, although the location of the nidus of dural spinal AVM's was not immediately recognized. 7, 8, 10, 12, 19 Kendall and Logue 16 in 1977 first distinguished two arteriographically distinct types of AVM of the spinal

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Clemens M. Schirmer, Steven W. Hwang, Ron I. Riesenburger, In Sup Choi and Carlos A. David

cord derives from the segmental dorsal arteries. This finding may correspond to a common metameric origin of the AVM vessels that create the cutaneomeningospinal angiomas of Cobb syndrome. 13 , 18–20 Rodesch and Lasjaunias 20 place this type of arteriovenous malformation in a group of patients that harbor multiple spinal arteriovenous malformations, which share a potential metameric link. These lesions are not inheritable, and a defect of the vascular cells during angiogenesis has been hypothesized, 18 , 19 which then will be carried during migration and

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Kittipong Srivatanakul, Dittapong Songsaeng, Augustin Ozanne, Frédérique Toulgoat and Pierre Lasjaunias

(Tokyo) 33 : 833 – 835 , 1993 9 Gardner WJ : Hydrodynamic mechanism of syringomyelia: its relationship to myelocele . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 28 : 247 – 259 , 1965 10 Greitz D : Unraveling the riddle of syringomyelia . Neurosurg Rev 29 : 251 – 264 , 2006 11 Hagihara N , Sakata S : Disproportionately large communicating fourth ventricle with syringomyelia: case report . Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 47 : 278 – 281 , 2007 12 Hasegawa O , Suzuki Y , Nagatomo H : [A case of spinal arteriovenous malformation associated with

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Vipul Gupta, Tanvir Rizvi, Ajay Garg, Shailesh B. Gaikwad and N. K. Mishra

. References 1. Anson JA , Spetzler RF : Classification of spinal arteriovenous malformations and implications for treatment. BNI Quarterly 8 : 2 , 1992 Anson JA, Spetzler RF: Classification of spinal arteriovenous malformations and implications for treatment. BNI Quarterly 8: 2, 1992 2. Berenstein A , Lasjaunias P (eds): Surgical Neuroangiography Berlin : Springer-Verlag , 1992 , Vol 4 , pp 1 – 85 Berenstein A, Lasjaunias P (eds): Surgical Neuroangiography Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992, Vol 4