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Paul C. Bucy and Ben W. Lichtenstein

spinal nerve roots (Lichtenstein 7 ). It is found very frequently in infants suffering from extreme degrees of spina bifida (Arnold, 3 Chiari, 4 Lichtenstein, 7 Schwalbe and Gredig, 10 and Jacob 6 ). Its occurrence in adults has generally been in conjunction with bony anomalies of the craniovertebral junction, such as basilar impression, or platybasia, and fusion abnormalities of the cervical spine (Klippel-Feil's syndrome). Examples of such combinations have been reported by List 8 and by Gustafson and Oldberg. 5 The occurrence of an Arnold-Chiari deformity of

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Arthur B. Soule Jr.

been reported as having produced Charcot joints are tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, trauma to the spinal cord, cauda equina, dorsal nerve roots and peripheral nerves, congenital malformations of the spine (such as spina bifida), myelitis, lead poisoning, hemiplegia following cerebral hemorrhage, pressure on the cord or cauda equina from tumors or tuberculosis of the spine, progressive muscular atrophy (both the Aran-Duchenne type or chronic poliomyelitis and the spastic type or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), typhoid fever, leprosy and peripheral neuritis. 1, 2, 4, 11

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Milton Tinsley

best possible chance for functional recovery of any remaining viable spinal cord. REFERENCES 1. Hassin , G. B. Reacting cells in the brain in the presence of a foreign body. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., Chicago , 1936 , 36 : 231 – 247 . Hassin , G. B. Reacting cells in the brain in the presence of a foreign body. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., Chicago , 1936, 36: 231–247. 2. Lichtenstein , B. W. , and Kirshbaum , J. D. Foreign body giant cell granuloma of the spinal cord associated with spina bifida

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Franc D. Ingraham and Orville T. Bailey

F Neck pain, sudden quadriplegia. Cervical Occult spina bifida over lesion. Laminectomy. Evacuation of cyst. Removal solid tumor. Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, mucous glands, cartilage, alveolar spaces lined by cuboidal epithelium, fat, nerve fibers, collagenous tissue. Living with no residual changes 10 years after operation. 11 R.M. 5 years M Back pain, paralysis lower extremities, C.S.F. block. Lumbar None Laminectomy. Incomplete removal cystic tumor. Stratified squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, mucous glands

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Eugene E. Cliffton and John R. Rydell

left. Knee and ankle jerks were equal and active bilaterally and the plantar responses were normal. Sensory examination revealed no abnormal sensory changes anywhere in the body. X-rays of the spine revealed spina bifida occulta of the entire sacrum ( Fig. 1 ). X-rays of the pelvis were otherwise negative and those of the knee were negative. Because of the possibility that the sinus might extend into the spinal canal, a pantopaque myelogram was performed 25 January 1946. The needle was inserted in the 3rd lumbar interspace and a free flow of crystal-clear fluid was

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Paul C. Bucy and Hardin Ritchey

. The syndrome of Klippel-Feil is characterized by a fusion of many of the cervical vertebrae and a resultant reduction in the number of bony components of the cervical spine. The patient appears to have a very short neck or almost no neck at all, the movements of the head and neck are distinctly limited, and the hair line on the back of the neck is exceptionally low. 3, 6 Associated malformations in this region are common. 1 There may be be an absence of the spinous processes and laminae of the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae, i.e., a spina bifida occulta

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John W. Chambers and Antonio G. Revilla

diseases of the spinal cord, membranes, and nerve roots. Symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. New York : Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. , 1941 , viii , 598 pp. (see pp. 163–184) . Elsberg , C. A. Surgical diseases of the spinal cord, membranes, and nerve roots. Symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. , 1941, viii, 598 pp. (see pp. 163–184). 2. Gross , S. W. , and Sachs , E. Spina bifida and cranium bifidum. A study of one hundred and three cases. Arch. Surg., Chicago , 1934 , 28 : 874

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Lyle A. French and William T. Peyton

, 53: 423–430. 4. Gowers , W. R. A case of unilateral gunshot injury to the spinal cord. Trans. clin. Soc. Lond. , 1878 , 11 : 24 – 32 . Gowers , W. R. A case of unilateral gunshot injury to the spinal cord. Trans. clin. Soc. Lond. , 1878, 11: 24–32. 5. Hamby , W. B. Pilonidal cyst, spina bifida occulta and bifid spinal cord. Report of a case with review of the literature. Arch. Path. , 1936 , 21 : 831 – 838 . Hamby , W. B. Pilonidal cyst, spina bifida occulta and bifid spinal cord

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Jerzy Chorobski and Lucjan Stȩpien

A malformation of the metencephalon, associated with herniation of the spinal cord and of its meninges through a large lumbosacral spina bifida, was first described by Arnold 3 in 1894. Two years later, Chiari 6 published a description of a still more serious developmental anomaly consisting of transposition not only of the abnormal cerebellum, but also of the medulla oblongata into the cervical portion of the vertebral canal. Schwalbe and Gredig (1907) 17 added 4 similar cases and pointed out that, as a rule, both types of malformation, i.e. of the

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Gilbert Horrax

fluid circulation. His clinical papers have dealt with a great variety of neurosurgical subjects among which the diagnosis of brain tumors looms large, but there are also important observations on large series of cases of spina bifida and of internal hydrocephalus. He was quick to take up the use of the electrosurgical unit as a valuable adjunct in operations on the brain, and also detailed his experiences with direct radiation of brain tumors during operation, being the first person to employ this method. Another important contribution was concerned with the