of State Medical Boards was formed. This group worked with the American Medical Association (AMA) to identify unethical physicians. In 1915, the National Board of Medical Examiners was founded to create examinations to better assess physician knowledge. Specialty boards began to form to help physicians self-regulate and to develop standards for education and quality of care. 3 Two preexisting boards, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (1934) and the American Board of Surgery (1937), were interested in certifying neurosurgeons. However, most
Marjorie C. Wang, Frederick A. Boop, Douglas Kondziolka, Daniel K. Resnick, Steven N. Kalkanis, Elizabeth Koehnen, Nathan R. Selden, Carl B. Heilman, Alex B. Valadka, Kevin M. Cockroft, John A. Wilson, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Anthony L. Asher, Richard W. Byrne, Paul J. Camarata, Judy Huang, John J. Knightly, Elad I. Levy, Russell R. Lonser, E. Sander Connolly Jr., Fredric B. Meyer and Linda M. Liau
David G. Kline and Stephen Mahaley Jr.
is axiomatic, and may be pretentious, to say that Internal Medicine is greater than the sum of its parts.” 3 Nonetheless, the arguments favoring such a course of subspecialization are also persuasively presented and it is apparent that Internal Medicine has adopted this latter course. Present Methods of Certification It may be helpful at this point to review briefly the process of primary certification as well as the recognition of subspecialization or special qualifications or competence. 1 Each of the 23 specialty boards is approved by the ABMS to issue
Edithe J. Levit
provide an opportunity to identify those measures of individual performance at various levels which have value as predictors of subsequent performance. National Board vs. Written In-Training Examination To what extent does performance on National Board examinations (taken prior to residency training) predict subsequent performance on the written intraining examination in neurosurgery? Such a correlation study was performed between scores on the written examination of the specialty boards of Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Pediatrics and the respective Part II
Much has been made in recent years of a volume effect in most aspects of medical care. Evidence for a volume effect has been noted in a variety of surgical procedures and medical treatments. This robust effect has been used both by specialty boards for certification and by third-party payers for reimbursement. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that a volume effect would be seen in the treatment of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). In the accompanying study by Shi et al., 1 an analysis of all TBIs in Taiwan over a decade-long period yields very similar
Leonard T. Furlow
shall not practice ophthalmology as a specialty. The Board specifically disclaims interest in or recognition of differential emoluments that may be based on certification.” By 1938 specialty certification had become so well established that an Advisory Board for Medical Specialties had been formed, and all recognized Boards were members. The Advisory Board was made up of representatives of all existing specialty boards, of the Association of American Medical Colleges, The Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Association, The
Edithe J. Levit
program be restructured so as to provide a more controlled environment for purposes of evaluation. The specialty boards and review committees have already done a great deal with respect to establishment of minimum standards and ground rules for graduate training programs. However, I do feel that the inherent educational variables during graduate training must be recognized and taken into account if any meaningful form of evaluation and guidance for learning is to be carried on. Do Those Involved in Graduate Training Have Interest in Evaluation of Learning? In
Its Past, Present and Future
William J. German
development in the field of neurological surgery and in the number of neurological surgeons. In April 1939 the Harvey Cushing Society gathered in New Haven for the 70th birthday party for the “Chief.” A glance at a photograph ( Fig. 2 ) taken on that memorable occasion will confirm that this Society as well as the specialty had grown up. Already there were gentle stirrings toward establishment of a certifying board in neurological surgery. The American Board of Ophthalmology had been activated in 1917, otolaryngology in 1924. By 1938 a total of fourteen specialty boards had
The 1972 AANS presidential address
Guy L. Odom
trainee as soon as he is awarded the M.D. degree. The AAMC is now critical of the authority of the specialty boards and of the method of residency training or graduate education as it now is called. This assumption of added responsibility by the universities is recommended even though the medical schools in our changing times already have been asked to increase the output of physicians, to decrease the period of training, to increase research activities, to prevent disease rather than to cure it, to increase the number of minority students, to increase the number of
Joseph H. Piatt Jr.
transitioning patients, such as medical specialty boards and national patient support organizations; and to develop an advocacy agenda for the AAP to pursue after the close of the term of the taskforce. With the co-sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Chapter and with the support of other sectors of the membership, this resolution earned a place among the “Top 10” approved resolutions in 2007 and was therefore fast-tracked for consideration by the Board without other layers of preliminary review. At the time of this writing, the Board of Directors has not acted on the 2007
The 1976 AANS presidential address
Richard L. DeSaussure Jr.
that relicen-sure should be granted either upon recertification of acceptable performance and continuing education programs, or upon the basis of a challenging examination in the practitioner's specialty. Relicensure, of course, is a function of the state and not under control of the specialty boards. It is hoped, however, that most of the states will accept recertification by one of the specialty boards, if this comes to pass, as fulfilling the requirements for relicensure. I believe that the approach should be three-pronged: 1) through the self