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Richard Leblanc

's experiment in dogs & other mammals. Ferrier, 1874 27 Observes motor responses in primates. Charcot, 1875 17 Results of stimulation obtained in animals cannot be accurately transposed onto the human brain. Begins a clinicopathological study of motor function. Ferrier, 1876 28 Publishes a drawing of the human brain onto which are transposed the results of stimulation obtained in monkeys: motor function extends well beyond the peri-rolandic region, & the somatotopy is incorrect. Charcot & Pitres, 1877 4 Localize human motor function to

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Stéphane Lehéricy, Hugues Duffau, Philippe Cornu, Laurent Capelle, Bernard Pidoux, Alexandre Carpentier, Stéphanie Auliac, Stèphane Clemenceau, Jean-Pierre Sichez, Ahmed Bitar, Charles-Ambroise Valery, Remy Van Effenterre, Thierry Faillot, Abbas Srour, Denis Fohanno, Jacques Philippon, Denis Le Bihan, and Claude Marsault

stimulation data. Thus, the present study confirms the reliability of the hand area for identifying the precentral gyrus in normal as well as diseased brains, alone or combined with other anatomical landmarks. Functional Somatotopy of the Primary Motor Cortex Somatotopical anatomy was reliably mapped to the individual patient's anatomy. The global pattern of somatotopical representation of the motor cortex was in agreement with Penfield's classic 1938 representation 18 or, more recently, PET scanning 4, 8 or fMR imaging studies. 21 The central sulcus has been subdivided

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Charles J. Hodge Jr., Sean C. Huckins, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi, Michael M. Fonte, Jacob G. Dubroff, and Krishna Davuluri

comparison of the eight high-resolution anatomical images with the coronal views supplied in the Talaraich atlas. MI = primary motor cortex; PoCG = postcentral gyrus where the SI is located. Results Eight volunteers participated in 53 experiments. Table 1 lists the stimulus types and the sites. More than one experiment was commonly performed on each volunteer during a single imaging session so that somatotopy of cortical activation elicited by stimulating different body parts could be evaluated using identical slice locations. More than 90% of the stimuli

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Anna Zdunczyk, Fabia Roth, Thomas Picht, and Peter Vajkoczy

) displaced but intact, 3) deformed, or 4) interrupted. 17 , 31 Then, the shortest distance between the lesion and the CST/corticobulbar tract (CBT) was measured. After surgical resection, the preoperative nTMS-DTI plan was fused with the postoperative MRI in order to analyze the condition of tracts beneath the resection cavity. FIG. 1. Workflow for nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking. A: nTMS determination of primary motor area (hand, leg, face). B: Transfer of nTMS-based seed points. C: Individual FAT determination. D: Somatotopy of tracts on brainstem level ( orange

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Jonathan D. Breshears, Annette M. Molinaro, and Edward F. Chang

O ver 70 years ago, Penfield (1937) published his seminal work on the somatotopy of the human peri-rolandic cortex, fortifying the notion of the classic sensorimotor homunculus. Surprisingly, few additional investigations with direct electrocortical stimulation (ECS) have been undertaken to study the organization of the ventral half of the sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) in humans, where speech articulators and nearby language centers make this area unique. 1 , 4 Neuroanatomically, the vSMC is distinct from the dorsal sensorimotor cortex (dSMC). Its neurons

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C. Michael Honey, Zurab Ivanishvili, Christopher R. Honey, and Manraj K. S. Heran

from the lower part of the body, whereas more anterior lesions would eliminate pain from the upper part of the body. In our experience with patients undergoing cordotomy, these models can account for most but not all of the clinical findings during the cordotomy procedure. After correlating in vivo macrostimulation-induced pain or temperature sensation during percutaneous cervical cordotomy with simultaneous CT imaging of the electrode tip location, we present a modern description of the somatotopy of the human cervical STT. Methods The University of British Columbia

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Kim J. Burchiel

clinical assessment instruments. The authors separated outcomes into the principal effects on three body areas (cervicoaxial region, superior limb, and inferior limb). They carefully analyzed the position of the active contact of the DBS that produced the maximal clinical benefit. Based on this analysis, the authors concluded that within the GPi, there is a somatotopy, in the sense that sites of stimulation that resulted in maximal improvement for each area of the body seemed to have a statistically significant and discrete locus. Curiously, significant proof of

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Yasushi Miyagi, Fumio Shima, Katsuya Ishido, Masashi Moriguchi, and Kazufumi Kamikaseda

suggested that the proximal distribution of this tremor has a close correlation with the somatotopy of the pallidoreticular and pallidothalamic pathways. 12 Case Report History This 49-year-old right-handed man suddenly developed double vision, right limb ataxia, dysarthria, and mild right-sided hemiparesis and hemihypesthesia. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies revealed a hemorrhage in the left pontine tegmentum. The patient was treated conservatively; he was discharged after a 2-month rehabilitation period at which time he was

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Warren W. Boling and André Olivier

S ensory responses obtained from stimulation in the postcentral gyrus follow a well-defined somatotopic relationship. 12, 24, 31 An identical somatotopy is also seen with PET and functional MR imaging, and the sites of activation are highly correlated with stimulation responses. 1, 29, 30 A number of cortical landmarks have been useful in localizing specific functional regions in the central area. 2, 3, 26, 39 The hand motor, tongue sensory, and lower face sensory areas can be readily identified on 2D and 3D MR imaging reconstructions. The hand motor area

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Warren Boling, André Olivier, Richard G. Bittar, and David Reutens

because the task paradigm favors far greater finger than thumb movement. Also, the signal-to-noise ratio is likely to be too low for significant activation peaks of individual finger movements. Catalan, et al., 4 showed finger somatotopy in the primary somatosensory cortex by using PET activation and by repeating each condition five times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of individual fingers. Other authors have also shown finger somatotopy of the somatosensory cortex in functional MR imaging studies. 13, 15 Primary Motor Cortex In each patient studied here the