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Eimad Shotar, Matthieu Debarre, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Federico Di Maria, Joseph Gabrieli, Aurélien Nouet, Jacques Chiras, Vincent Degos and Frédéric Clarençon

R upture is the most significant source of morbidity and mortality in the natural history of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) and is a leading cause of social and health care costs. 11 , 18 Much effort has been dedicated to identifying risk factors predictive of BAVM rupture. 9 Less is known about predictive factors for clinical outcome after BAVM rupture. The intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score is a reliable predictor of outcome after ICH. 13 However, patients with ICH secondary to BAVM rupture tend to be younger, have lower pre-stroke and admission

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Ross L. Dawkins, Joseph H. Miller, Omar I. Ramadan, Michael C. Lysek, Elizabeth N. Kuhn, Brandon G. Rocque, Michael J. Conklin, R. Shane Tubbs, Beverly C. Walters, Bonita S. Agee and Curtis J. Rozzelle

P ediatric spine injuries account for 1%–10% of all spine traumas and represent 5% of all pediatric bone fractures. 2 , 3 , 5 , 32 The reported incidence of thoracolumbar fractures in children with spine injuries ranges from 5% to 34%. 5 , 20 Current management strategies for pediatric thoracolumbar fractures rely mostly on the discretion of the treating physician. There is no universally accepted classification system to aid in the decision for fracture management. In 2005, the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) was developed with

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Kelly J. Miller, Karen A. Schwab and Deborah L. Warden

condition into the categories of good recovery (Score 5), moderate disability (Score 4), severe disability (Score 3), vegetative state (Score 2), and dead (Score 1). Since its introduction in 1975 by Jennett and Bond, 9 the GOS has gained widespread use as a research and clinical tool that has enabled comparisons of many different groups of patients with head injury. The scale was intended for broadly describing functional outcome in groups of cases, and some authors have recommended supplementing the GOS with more sensitive and specific scales or even replacing it with

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Constantin Tuleasca, Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Henri-Arthur Leroy, Maximilien Vermandel, Mohamed Faouzi and Nicolas Reyns

Gy in 2 patients (1.3%), 21 Gy in 20 patients (13.4%), 22 Gy in 1 patient (0.7%), 23 Gy in 1 patient (0.7%), 24 Gy in 115 patients (77.2%), and 25 Gy in 8 patients (5.4%), respectively. The Virginia score 24 was 0 in 29 (19.5%), 1 in 61 (40.9%), 2 in 41 (27.5%), 3 in 18 (12.1%), 4 in 0 (0%) patients. The mean Pollock-Flickinger score 25 was 1.11 (median 1.52, range 0.4–2.9). TABLE 2. Basic dosimetric data Variable Mean SD Median Range No. of Patients (%) BED 220.1 25 229.9 106.7–246.8 Beam-on time, mins 32.3 18.1 30.8 9–138.7 Vol corresponding to PIV, cm 3 2.44 2

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Ibrahim Hussain, Ori Barzilai, Anne S. Reiner, Lily McLaughlin, Natalie M. DiStefano, Shahiba Ogilvie, Anne L. Versteeg, Charles G. Fisher, Mark H. Bilsky and Ilya Laufer

T umor-associated spinal instability serves as a major source of morbidity in patients with metastatic cancer and has been defined as “movement-related pain, symptomatic or progressive deformity, and/or neurologic compromise under physiologic loads.” 5 The Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) facilitates detection of tumor-associated spinal instability and improves communication among oncology physicians. 5 , 6 Furthermore, SINS serves as a key patient population descriptor in clinical studies trials. 10 , 12 SINS consists of 5 radiographic components

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Joseph P. Herbert, Sidish S. Venkataraman, Ali H. Turkmani, Liang Zhu, Marcia L. Kerr, Rajan P. Patel, Irma T. Ugalde, Stephen A. Fletcher, David I. Sandberg, Charles S. Cox Jr., Ryan S. Kitagawa, Arthur L. Day and Manish N. Shah

cohort and determined that the risk factors for pediatric BCVI are similar to those in the adult population. Thus, EAST recommended a screening score for the pediatric trauma population that is very similar to those used for adults. 12 , 35 Subsequently, several studies attempted to validate the use of adult screening criteria in pediatric BCVI, including the Denver group, which found that only 30% of symptomatic children with BCVI met their previously reported adult screening criteria. 32 Recently, however, Ravindra et al. at the University of Utah School of

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Vincent C. Traynelis and Hussein Alahmadi

The management of thoracolumbar burst fractures varies considerably among spine surgeons. The load-sharing classification was initially published to predict the success of short-segment posterior fusions for thoracolumbar burst fractures. 5 In the following paper, Radcliff et al. studied the relationship between the load-sharing score (LSS) and different aspects of these burst fractures. 7 They concluded that the LSS did not correlate with posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injury, neurological status, or management decision. An interesting finding in

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Dominik Diesing, Stefan Wolf, Jenny Sommerfeld, Asita Sarrafzadeh, Peter Vajkoczy and Nora F. Dengler

): high Fisher grade, acute hydrocephalus (aHP), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), high Hunt and Hess grade, rehemorrhage, posterior circulation location of the aneurysm, age ≥ 60 years, and female sex. 28 Certain attempts have been made to define scores for predicting the occurrence of SDHC. For example, the failure risk index (FRI) score included the following parameters: third ventricular diameter, Hunt and Hess grade, CSF protein levels, sex, and posterior circulation location of the aneurysm. 4 So far, the FRI score has not gained

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Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ruth Donnelly and Iffat Shams

, consisting of 12 questions. The gold standard for objectively measuring cognitive performance has long been through the use of neuropsychological tests, including traditional IQ testing and other specific tests. We embarked on a study to assess detailed objective neuropsychological performance in a diverse group of children with treated hydrocephalus, and we compared these results to those obtained from the more subjective parent responses to questions from the HOQ. We hypothesized that, although there might be areas for which the HOQ scores mirror neuropsychological test

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Edward F. Chang, Aaron Clark, Randy L. Jensen, Mark Bernstein, Abhijit Guha, Giorgio Carrabba, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Won Kim, Linda M. Liau, Susan M. Chang, Justin S. Smith, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael W. McDermott

timing of radiation therapy, 1 , 3 , 7 , 15 as significant variability in treatment of LGG exists between institutions. 1 To address these issues, we recently presented an LGG scoring system based on the retrospective analysis of a single institutional study population. 8 The aim of the scoring system was to derive an easy-to-use and reliable method for prognosticating outcomes preoperatively. Others have also shown that preoperative variables play an important role in prognosis. 1 In our earlier study, multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling demonstrated