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Aristotelis V. Kalyvas, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Mantha Pantazi, Georgios D. Lianos, George Stranjalis and George A. Alexiou

consequences for the infant. Several child-related risk factors have been associated with the development of CH. These risk factors include male sex, preterm birth (< 28 weeks), birth weight (below the 10th percentile or above the 90th percentile), and being firstborn. 19 However, little is known about the maternal environmental risk factors (i.e., environmental factors that directly affect the mother and possibly cause hydrocephalus by indirectly affecting the fetus) related to CH. Although a small number of cohort and observational studies have previously reported

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John A. Boockvar, Matthew F. Philips, Albert E. Telfeian, Donald M. O'Rourke and Paul J. Marcotte

smoking, and host bone density. 3, 12, 22, 26 Because of the unique biomechanics and anatomy of the CTJ, our goal in this study was to identify risk factors for graft failure, including pseudarthrosis, specific to this area of the spine. Additionally, in this retrospective review of 14 patients in whom anterior CTJ surgery was performed, we describe the clinical data and potential complications found in the subset of patients for whom the anterior approach alone may not be sufficient for stabilization. Clinical Material and Methods Patient Population From

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Christopher D. Wilson, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Hai Sun, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Yan D. Zhao, Michael R. Levitt, Ricardo A. Hanel, Eric Sauvageau, Timothy B. Mapstone, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron G. McDougall, Peter Nakaji and Robert F. Spetzler

ventriculoperitoneal shunting. 17 Since the association between aSAH and hydrocephalus was described in 1928, the occurrence of hydrocephalus after aSAH has been well studied, but reports of risk factors for its development are inconsistent. 13 Therefore, factors that predict shunt dependency are not clear, and hydrocephalus after aSAH is still a significant hazard to patients. The goals of our review were 3-fold. First, we systematically reviewed the literature to identify all published risk factors for shunt dependency in aSAH patients. Second, we combined data to calculate the

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Tianhao Wang, Yongfei Zhao, Yan Liang, Haocong Zhang, Zheng Wang and Yan Wang

date, a large number of studies have focused on PJK occurring in mobile junction areas. In a recent case report, the authors suggested that PJK might also occur in the ankylosing spine. 6 In AS patients, similarly, the spine is rigid and unmovable. Whether patients with AS will experience PJK remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to observe the incidence of PJK in AS patients who underwent pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and analyze the probable risk factors that contribute to the development of PJK. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis

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Hongwei Wang, Yue Zhou, Changqing Li, Jun Liu and Liangbi Xiang

reviewed our experience to provide further insights into the rate of surgical failure following PELD. Moreover, we sought to identify the associated risk factors for surgical failure, including demographic, clinical, and radiologically identified factors. Methods Patient Population A consecutive cohort of 350 patients with single-level LDH who underwent PELD using the Yeung Endoscopic Spine System (Richard Wolf Medical Instrument Co.) between 2005 and 2011 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were treated at Xinqiao Hospital, Chongqing, by 2

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Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Richard Holubkov, Jerry Butler, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James Drake, William E. Whitehead, John C. Wellons III, Chevis N. Shannon, Mandeep S. Tamber, David D. Limbrick Jr., Curtis Rozzelle, Samuel R. Browd, Tamara D. Simon and The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

H ydrocephalus in the pediatric population levies significant clinical and economic tolls on both the health care system and the affected patients and families. Most of this morbidity is represented by subsequent reevaluations, readmissions, and procedures associated with CSF shunt revisions and infections. 20 For decades, the pediatric neurosurgical community has aimed to minimize CSF shunt failure, which is defined as either a CSF shunt malfunction requiring revision or a CSF shunt infection. Attempts to identify specific risk factors for shunt failure

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William R. Copeland, Grant W. Mallory, Brian A. Neff, Colin L. W. Driscoll and Michael J. Link

C erebrospinal fluid leaks remain a common complication following the resection of a vestibular schwannoma (VS) ( Fig. 1 ). 2 , 18 Not only does a postoperative CSF leak lead to additional use of hospital resources and increased cost to the patient, but the presence of a leak may result in patient morbidity, including meningitis or even death. 5 , 16 This study was conducted to identify risk factors for a postoperative CSF leak after VS surgery. Identifying such risk factors could help surgeons appropriately counsel patients regarding their risk profile

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Giovanni Vercelli, Thomas J. Sorenson, Ahmad Z. Aljobeh, Roanna Vine and Giuseppe Lanzino

W ith widespread utilization of noninvasive imaging, cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are frequently diagnosed incidentally. The benign natural history of these lesions is well known, 11 but limited information has been reported regarding assessment of the risk of growth in untreated patients. Moreover, although cavernous ICA aneurysms are considered a different subtype of aneurysm compared to intracranial berry aneurysms in locations other than the cavernous ICA, little is known about differences in demographics and risk factors between these

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Shannon Fraser, Paul A. Gardner, Maria Koutourousiou, Mark Kubik, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H. Snyderman and Eric W. Wang

T he development of endoscopic skull base surgery has revolutionized the treatment of skull base tumors over the past 2 decades. Evolution of this approach has resulted in the ability to resect large skull base tumors with a minimal access approach. The most clinically significant complication of endoscopic skull base surgery, which remains its primary criticism, is the development of a postoperative CSF leak. Despite the importance of this complication, there are limited data identifying risk factors associated with postoperative CSF leak when a large dural

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Jaechan Park, Wonsoo Son, Ki-Su Park, Dong-Hun Kang and Im Hee Shin

high. Accordingly, we investigated surgically treated cases of ruptured MCA aneurysms to identify the risk factors that can predict a premature rupture and for which appropriate surgical management must be applied. Methods Patient Population During an 8-year period (January 2007 to December 2014), 182 consecutive patients among a total of 927 patients with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm underwent surgical clipping for a ruptured MCA aneurysm at our institution and were enrolled in this retrospective study. The inclusion criteria for this study were as