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Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan and Carol Kruchko

medical costs over time. The estimated average years of potential life lost in persons with meningiomas is 13 years, providing further evidence of the long-term burden of this disease. 110 Causes and Risk Factors In addition to increasing age, the most consistent factor associated with risk of meningioma is exposure to ionizing radiation; many other environmental, lifestyle and genetic risk factors have been studied with inconclusive results. 12 Some of the factors that have been studied are endogenous and exogenous hormone use, 11 , 13 , 33 , 41 , 49 , 51 , 97

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Margaret A. Olsen, Jennie Mayfield, Carl Lauryssen, Louis B. Polish, Marilyn Jones, Joshua Vest and Victoria J. Fraser

–24 A wide variety of risk factors for SSI in spinal surgery have been reported. Patient characteristics reported to be associated with increased risk of SSI include older age, 13, 22 obesity, 2, 24 diabetes, 21, 24 smoking, 24 preoperative malnutrition, 13, 16 bowel and bladder incontinence, 18 and previous or repeated spinal surgery. 2, 20, 24 Surgery-related risk factors reported to increase the risk of SSI following spinal surgery are longer preoperative hospital LOS, 24 increased duration 22, 24 and increased complexity of surgery, 4, 24 placement of

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Majid Dadmehr, Farideh Nejat, Mostafa El Khashab, Saeed Ansari, Nima Baradaran, Abolhasan Ertiaei and Farzad Bateni

E ncephaloceles are congenital malformations characterized by a protrusion of the brain tissue and/or meninges through a skull defect 1 , 3 and reportedly occur in 0.8–5.6 per 10,000 live births. 4 , 7 , 11 In patients in Western countries encephaloceles are most frequently located in the occipital region, whereas in Russian and Southeast Asian patients frontoethmoidal encephaloceles predominate. 8 , 13 The origin of the encephalocele is considered to be complex, and any associated risk factors have remained mostly elusive. 13 There is some evidence

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Habib E. Ellamushi, Joan P. Grieve, H. Rolf Jäger and Neil D. Kitchen

follows, therefore, that the identification of modifiable risk factors for formation of multiple aneurysms is important and has implications both for the prevention of SAH and a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of multiple cerebral aneurysms. Cerebrovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption have been shown to increase the risk of SAH and spontaneous intracerebral hematoma. 11, 14–16, 19, 23, 31 However, the role of these risk factors in the formation of multiple, as opposed to single, aneurysms is

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Vibhor Krishna and Dong H. Kim

consistently higher among African-American and Hispanic groups. 5 , 6 , 17 , 49 When compared with non-Hispanic whites, the pooled odds ratio for African-Americans is 1.5 (95% CI 1.43–1.61) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.99–1.35) for Hispanics. 3 , 6 , 10 , 22 , 47 , 49 , 53 Based on these findings it is likely that African-American and Hispanic groups suffer a higher SAH burden. Although the cause of these differences is unknown, it is possible that there are ethnic variations in susceptibility to SAH risk factors. In other vascular conditions such as stroke 18 , 48 and coronary

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Michael B. Gutman, Richard J. Moulton, Irene Sullivan, Gillian Hotz, William S. Tucker and Paul J. Muller

T here is considerable evidence to suggest that early recognition and surgical evacuation of traumatic intracranial hematomas prevent death and disability, especially in patients who talk and then deteriorate neurologically. 8, 19–22 The widespread availability of computerized tomography (CT) scanning provides the means to recognize operable mass lesions before overt neurological deterioration takes place. This study was conducted to determine risk factors that might predict the presence or absence of operable traumatic intracranial hematomas in head

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Tetsuji Inagawa

morbidity and death due to SAH is to prevent its occurrence by identifying modifiable risk factors. Many studies of SAH have featured widely varying annual incidences. In Izumo between 1980 and 1998, the crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of aneurysmal SAH were both 23 per 100,000 people per year for all ages. 12 Furthermore, when including in the incidence calculations patients whose death certificates indicated that they might have died of aneurysmal SAH, but who had not been formally examined, the rates increased to 32 and 29 per 100,000 people per year

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Kenichiro Asano, Takahiro Nakano, Tetsuji Takeda and Hiroki Ohkuma

postoperative systemic complications in this population. 5 , 12 , 23 , 35 Several studies dealing with the risk factors for postoperative mortality, morbidity, and prognosis have found that postoperative systemic complications are common in elderly patients and patients with a low preoperative KPS score. 1 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 19 , 21 , 22 , 24 , 26 , 30 , 36 Nevertheless, at present there are no clear guidelines for preventing postoperative systemic complications based on preoperative risk factors. In the present study, elderly patients with brain tumors were defined as

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Claire Lietard, Véronique Thébaud, Gérard Besson and Benoist Lejeune

I ncidence of SSIs in neurosurgery is usually low. However, their consequences in terms of morbidity and death can be so disastrous that studying their specific risk factors is of major importance for determining any preventive strategies. 18 , 28 The number of SSIs in neurosurgery is so small that risk factor survey designs have to include large sample sizes to detect any significant series of infection cases. To find just 50–150 SSIs, 3 , 16 , 30 inclusion periods for retrospective surveys have been reported to be 6–14 years long. As for prospective

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Masahiko Watanabe, Daisuke Sakai, Daisuke Matsuyama, Yukihiro Yamamoto, Masato Sato and Joji Mochida

ranged from 0 to 15%, depending on the reason for the operation, the site, the approach, and the use of instrumentation. 1 , 2 , 10 , 13 , 27 , 32 , 40 , 42 , 44 Known risk factors for infection after spine surgery include advanced age, drug and alcohol abuse, smoking history, diabetes, obesity, malnutrition, immunological insufficiency, an operation for traumatized spine, prolonged surgical time, high blood loss, posterior approach, use of instrumentation, and a high volume of personnel moving through the operating rooms. 2 , 5 , 10 , 20 , 21 , 26–28 Awareness of