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Anand Veeravagu, Amy Li, Christian Swinney, Lu Tian, Adrienne Moraff, Tej D. Azad, Ivan Cheng, Todd Alamin, Serena S. Hu, Robert L. Anderson, Lawrence Shuer, Atman Desai, Jon Park, Richard A. Olshen and John K. Ratliff

)–sanctioned Physician Quality Reporting System element (Measure 358: Patient-Centered Surgical Risk Assessment and Communication); this measure is endorsed by NQF as applicable to patients undergoing a variety of surgical procedures, including many spine surgery procedures. 6 A previously described Risk Assessment Tool (RAT) was developed for patients undergoing spine surgery. The tool was developed using statistical modeling of longitudinal prospective data from an administrative claims database. 34 This model predicts adverse events after spine surgery. The RAT incorporates

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Connor Gifford, Amy J. Minnema, Justin Baum, Michelle L. Humeidan, Daniel E. Vazquez and H. Francis Farhadi

, and LOS. In this study, POI was associated with an increased LOS of 3.5 days, which is consistent with previous series showing 2.8–4.3 days of additional hospitalization. 1 , 8 , 9 , 12 Along with accelerated recovery and improvements in patient satisfaction following spinal surgery, a reduced incidence of POI is expected to substantially reduce inpatient hospital costs, estimated at over $1 billion annually. 15 Logistic regression analyses presented in this study support the inclusion of 5 independent factors in the risk assessment scale, 4 of which (i.e., age

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Yuichi Murayama, Soichiro Fujimura, Tomoaki Suzuki and Hiroyuki Takao

, the analyzed hemodynamic values cannot simply be compared with each other. If we consider using CFD as a risk assessment tool for aneurysmal rupture in the future, it is necessary to perform a large-scale multicenter CFD study for unruptured and ruptured aneurysms that uses images before rupture. In addition, there is a need to standardize the CFD analysis method to a level to be able to guarantee the quality and comparability of hemodynamic results. It is important to keep in mind that CFD data alone cannot be an absolute predictor of rupture. A patient

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Faith C. Robertson, Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan Jr. and William B. Gormley

OBJECTIVE

Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins.

METHODS

Radiographic analysis was completed on 50 consecutive dynamic CTA/CTV studies obtained at a tertiary-care academic neurosurgery department. Image sections were 0.5 mm thick, and analysis was performed on a venous phase that demonstrated high-quality opacification of the cortical veins and sagittal sinus. Virtual ventriculostomy trajectories were determined for right and left sides using medical diagnostic imaging software. Entry points were measured along the skull surface, 10 cm posteriorly from the nasion, and 3 cm laterally for both left and right sides. Cannulation was simulated perpendicular to the skull surface. Distances between the software-traced cortical vessels and the virtual catheter were measured. To approximate vessel injury by twist drill and ventricular catheter placement, veins within a 3-mm radius were considered a hemorrhage risk.

RESULTS

In 100 virtual lines through Kocher's point toward the ipsilateral ventricle, 19% were predicted to cause cortical vein injury and suspected hemorrhage (radius ≤ 3 mm). Little difference existed between cerebral hemispheres (right 18%, left 20%). The average (± SD) distance from the trajectory line and a cortical vein was 7.23 ± 4.52 mm. In all 19 images that predicted vessel injury, a site of entry for an avascular zone near Kocher's point could be achieved by moving the trajectory less than 1.0 cm laterally and less than 1.0 cm along the anterior/posterior axis, suggesting that empirical measures are suboptimal, and that patient-specific coordinates based on preprocedural CTA/CVA imaging may optimize ventriculostomy in the future.

CONCLUSIONS

In this institutional radiographic imaging analysis, traditional methods of ventriculostomy site selection predicted significant rates of cortical vein injury, matching described rates in the literature. CTA/CTV imaging potentiates identification of patient-specific cannulation sites and custom trajectories that avoid cortical vessels, which may lessen the risk of intracranial hemorrhage during ventriculostomy placement. Further development of this software is underway to facilitate stereotactic ventriculostomy and improve outcomes.

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Matthew J. McGirt, Graeme F. Woodworth, Alex L. Coon, James M. Frazier, Eric Amundson, Ira Garonzik, Alessandro Olivi and Jon D. Weingart

Object. Image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy is associated with transient and permanent incidences of morbidity in 9 and 4.5% of patients, respectively. The goal of this study was to perform a critical analysis of risk factors predictive of an enhanced operative risk in frame-based and frameless stereotactic brain biopsy.

Methods. The authors reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging records of 270 patients who underwent consecutive frame-based and frameless image-guided stereotactic brain biopsies. The association between preoperative variables and biopsy-related morbidity was assessed by performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Transient and permanent stereotactic biopsy-related morbidity was observed in 23 (9%) and 13 (5%) patients, respectively. A hematoma occurred at the biopsy site in 25 patients (9%); 10 patients (4%) were symptomatic. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 3.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–10.17, p = 0.01), thalamic lesions (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.63–10.11, p = 0.002), and basal ganglia lesions (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.05–10.25, p = 0.04) were independent risk factors for morbidity. In diabetic patients, a serum level of glucose that was greater than 200 mg/dl on the day of biopsy had a 100% positive predictive value and a glucose level lower than 200 mg/dl on the same day had a 95% negative predictive value for biopsy-related morbidity. Pontine biopsy was not a risk factor for morbidity. Only two (4%) of 45 patients who had epilepsy before the biopsy experienced seizures postoperatively. The creation of more than one needle trajectory increased the incidence of neurological deficits from 17 to 44% when associated with the treatment of deep lesions (those in the basal ganglia or thalamus; p = 0.05), but was not associated with morbidity when associated with the treatment of cortex lesions.

Conclusions. Basal ganglia lesions, thalamic lesions, and patients with diabetes were independent risk factors for biopsy-associated morbidity. Hyperglycemia on the day of biopsy predicted morbidity in the diabetic population. Epilepsy did not predispose to biopsy-associated seizure. For deep-seated lesions, increasing the number of biopsy samples along an established track rather than performing a second trajectory may minimize the incidence of morbidity. Close perioperative observation of glucose levels may be warranted.

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Soliman Oushy, Stefan H. Sillau, Douglas E. Ney, Denise M. Damek, A. Samy Youssef, Kevin O. Lillehei and D. Ryan Ormond

OBJECTIVE

Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in seizure-naïve brain tumor patients remains a topic of debate. This study aimed to characterize a subset of patients at highest risk for new-onset perioperative seizures (i.e., intraoperative and postoperative seizures occurring within 30 days of surgery) who may benefit from prophylactic AEDs.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study of all adults who had undergone tumor resection or biopsy at the authors’ institution between January 1, 2004, and June 31, 2015. All patients with a history of preoperative seizures, posterior fossa tumors, pituitary tumors, and parasellar tumors were excluded. A control group was matched to the seizure patients according to age (± 0 years). Demographic data, clinical status, operative data, and postoperative course data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 1693 patients who underwent tumor resection or biopsy, 549 (32.4%) had never had a preoperative seizure. Of these 549 patients, 25 (4.6%) suffered a perioperative seizure (Group 1). A total of 524 patients (95.4%) who remained seizure free were matched to Group 1 according to age (± 0 years), resulting in 132 control patients (Group 2), at an approximate ratio of 1:5. There were no differences between the patient groups in terms of age, sex, race, relationship status, and neurological deficits on presentation. Histological subtype (infiltrating glioma vs meningioma vs other, p = 0.041), intradural tumor location (p < 0.001), intraoperative cortical stimulation (p = 0.004), and extent of resection (less than gross total, p = 0.002) were associated with the occurrence of perioperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

While most seizure-naïve brain tumor patients do not benefit from perioperative seizure prophylaxis, such treatment should be considered in high-risk patients with supratentorial intradural tumors, in patients undergoing intraoperative cortical stimulation, and in patients in whom subtotal resection is likely.

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Jun Hirose, Takuya Taniwaki, Toru Fujimoto, Tatsuya Okada, Takayuki Nakamura, Nobukazu Okamoto, Koichiro Usuku and Hiroshi Mizuta

Object

The Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) and Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) systems are surgical risk scoring systems that take into account both the patient's preoperative condition and intraoperative variables. While they predict postoperative morbidity and mortality rates for several types of surgery, spinal surgeries are currently not included. The authors assessed the usefulness of E-PASS and POSSUM algorithms and compared the predictive ability of both systems in patients with spinal disorders considered for surgery.

Methods

The E-PASS system includes a preoperative risk score, a surgical stress score, and a comprehensive risk score that is determined by both the preoperative risk score and surgical stress score. The POSSUM system is composed of a physiological score and an operative severity score; its total score is based on both the physiological score and operative severity score. The authors calculated the E-PASS and POSSUM scores for 601 consecutive patients who had undergone spinal surgery and investigated the relationship between the individual scores of both systems and the incidence of postoperative complications. They also assessed the correctness of the predicted morbidity rate of both systems.

Results

Postoperative complications developed in 64 patients (10.6%); there were no in-hospital deaths. All EPASS scores (p ≤ 0.001) and the operative severity score and total score of the POSSUM (p < 0.03) were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications than in those without postoperative complications. The morbidity rates correlated linearly and significantly with all E-PASS scores (p ≤ 0.001); their coefficients (preoperative risk score, ρ = 0.179; surgical stress score, ρ = 0.131; and comprehensive risk score, ρ = 0.198) were higher than those for the POSSUM scores (physiological score, ρ = 0.059; operative severity score, ρ = 0.111; and total score, ρ = 0.091). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the predicted morbidity rate was 0.668 for the E-PASS and 0.588 for the POSSUM system.

Conclusions

As E-PASS predicted morbidity more correctly than POSSUM, it is useful for estimating the postoperative risk of patients considered for spinal surgery.

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Peyton L. Nisson, Salman A. Fard, Christina M. Walter, Cameron M. Johnstone, Michael A. Mooney, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael Lang, Helen Kim, Heidi Jahnke, Denise J. Roe, Travis M. Dumont, G. Michael Lemole Jr., Robert F. Spetzler and Michael T. Lawton

AVM (+1 point) with active hemorrhaging, the patient was taken for immediate surgical intervention (+1 point). Using our proposed grading system, this patient scores a 3, making it a grade 2 lesion with moderate risk. Complete obliteration was achieved, and this patient experienced a favorable outcome, with his/her most recent 2-year follow-up mRS score = 1. TABLE 3. Risk-prediction scores per variable and risk grades of model Mortality Risk † Risk Grade Points * Risk Assessment % at Risk for Poor Outcome (no.) Periop Overall 1 0–1 Low 33% (16/49) 0% (0/49) 0% (0

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Peyton L. Nisson, Salman A. Fard, Christina M. Walter, Cameron M. Johnstone, Michael A. Mooney, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael Lang, Helen Kim, Heidi Jahnke, Denise J. Roe, Travis M. Dumont, G. Michael Lemole Jr., Robert F. Spetzler and Michael T. Lawton

AVM (+1 point) with active hemorrhaging, the patient was taken for immediate surgical intervention (+1 point). Using our proposed grading system, this patient scores a 3, making it a grade 2 lesion with moderate risk. Complete obliteration was achieved, and this patient experienced a favorable outcome, with his/her most recent 2-year follow-up mRS score = 1. TABLE 3. Risk-prediction scores per variable and risk grades of model Mortality Risk † Risk Grade Points * Risk Assessment % at Risk for Poor Outcome (no.) Periop Overall 1 0–1 Low 33% (16/49) 0% (0/49) 0% (0

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Sebastian Lohmann, Tobias Brix, Julian Varghese, Nils Warneke, Michael Schwake, Eric Suero Molina, Markus Holling, Walter Stummer and Stephanie Schipmann

OBJECTIVE

Various quality indicators are currently under investigation, aiming at measuring the quality of care in neurosurgery; however, the discipline currently lacks practical scoring systems for accurately assessing risk. The aim of this study was to develop three accurate, easy-to-use risk scoring systems for nosocomial infections, reoperations, and adverse events for patients with cerebral and spinal tumors.

METHODS

The authors developed a semiautomatic registry with administrative and clinical data and included all patients with spinal or cerebral tumors treated between September 2017 and May 2019. Patients were further divided into development and validation cohorts. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to develop risk scores by assigning points based on β coefficients, and internal validation of the scores was performed.

RESULTS

In total, 1000 patients were included. An unplanned 30-day reoperation was observed in 6.8% of patients. Nosocomial infections were documented in 7.4% of cases and any adverse event in 14.5%. The risk scores comprise variables such as emergency admission, nursing care level, ECOG performance status, and inflammatory markers on admission. Three scoring systems, NoInfECT for predicting the incidence of nosocomial infections (low risk, 1.8%; intermediate risk, 8.1%; and high risk, 26.0% [p < 0.001]), LEUCut for 30-day unplanned reoperations (low risk, 2.2%; intermediate risk, 6.8%; and high risk, 13.5% [p < 0.001]), and LINC for any adverse events (low risk, 7.6%; intermediate risk, 15.7%; and high risk, 49.5% [p < 0.001]), showed satisfactory discrimination between the different outcome groups in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (AUC ≥ 0.7).

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed risk scores allow efficient prediction of the likelihood of adverse events, to compare quality of care between different providers, and further provide guidance to surgeons on how to allocate preoperative care.