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Je Yeong Sone, Douglas Kondziolka, Jason H. Huang and Uzma Samadani

Methods A literature search on PubMed was conducted using key phrases such as “helmet protection against concussion” or “helmet efficacy in traumatic brain injury” within the years 2010–2015 to identify all recent relevant articles. Reference lists of relevant publications and literature reviews were searched and used to find additional sources. Studies that were not directly related to finding helmet effectiveness in protecting against concussion were eliminated from the PubMed searches. Results The PubMed search terms “helmet” and “concussion” in all fields

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Spinal instrumentation in infants, children, and adolescents: a review

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Stephen Mendenhall, Dillon Mobasser, Katherine Relyea and Andrew Jea

instrumentation on the skeletally immature spine. Fusing the skeletally immature spine may lead to far more serious issues beyond growth retardation. These issues may include restrictive lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, and death. This review of our experience and series of pediatric patients describes seldom-used anterior and more often used posterior approaches for the placement of spinal instrumentation in the pediatric spine. It surveys the history of spinal instrumentation in children, beginning with Paul Harrington and his revolutionary treatment

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Theodoros Kombos and Olaf Süss

. Neurophysiol Clin 37 : 373 – 382 , 2007 26 Duffau H : Intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulations in surgery of low-grade gliomas . Expert Rev Neurother 5 : 473 – 485 , 2005 27 Duffau H : Lessons from brain mapping in surgery for lowgrade glioma: insights into associations between tumour and brain plasticity . Lancet Neurol 4 : 476 – 486 , 2005 28 Duffau H : New concepts in surgery of WHO grade II gliomas: functional brain mapping, connectionism and plasticity—a review . J Neurooncol 79 : 77 – 115 , 2006 29 Duffau H : A personal

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Ching-Jen Chen, Cheng-Chia Lee, Dale Ding, Robert M. Starke, Srinivas Chivukula, Chun-Po Yen, Shayan Moosa, Zhiyuan Xu, David Hung-Chi Pan and Jason P. Sheehan

endovascular or surgical approaches, or for patients who pose a high surgical risk due to medical comorbidities. Therefore, published SRS series for DAVFs remain relatively few and comprise mostly retrospective, single-center studies. In this systematic review, we evaluate the obliteration rate of DAVFs in patients treated with SRS. We also compare obliteration rates between cavernous sinus (CS) and noncavernous sinus (NCS) DAVFs, and between DAVFs with and without cortical venous drainage (CVD), by using available data in the literature. Methods Inclusion Criteria

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Weiming Liu, Nicolaas A. Bakker and Rob J. M. Groen

reported rates up to 33%. 35 It has already been shown by Santarius et al. that drainage after surgical evacuation of the hematoma likely leads to a better outcome. 28 Besides drainage, other questions that remain imminent are the use of a regular bur hole or the use of a twist drill, the use of irrigation, the optimal duration of drainage, postoperative posture, and optimal location of the catheter used for drainage. In the available literature, results are inconsistent. In view of the aforementioned factors we aimed to perform an extensive systematic review

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Patrick C. Hsieh, Christopher J. Stapleton, Pavel Moldavskiy, Tyler R. Koski, Stephen L. Ondra, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Charles Kuntz IV

conducted via a posterior approach and a vertebral osteotomy is performed to facilitate spinal column shortening ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). A detailed search of the neurosurgical and orthopedic literature reveals that posterior vertebral column subtraction osteotomy (PVCSO) has been used in 18 patients with TCS since its initial description. In this review, we provide an analysis of the relevant clinical characteristics, operative details, and postoperative outcomes in these patients and assess the role of PVCSO in the treatment of primary and recurrent TCS. F ig . 1

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Michael G. Fehlings and Charles H. Tator

because of the lack of well-designed and -executed randomized controlled trials. In the present paper, we review the experimental and clinical evidence with regard to the value of decompressive surgery in treating patients with acute nonpenetrating SCI and compare these data with results of the conservative, nonoperative management of SCI. This evidence-based literature analysis was conducted as part of the Surgical Trial in the Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study project, an undertaking supported by the Joint Section of Neurotrauma and Critical Care and The Joint Section of

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Peyton L. Nisson, Ibrahim Hussain, Roger Härtl, Samuel Kim and Ali A. Baaj

may fill more slowly than the rest of the subarachnoid space, demonstrating different signal intensity and density on T2-weighted MRI and CT myelography, respectively. 14 To date, the largest review by Aiyer et al. found that only 30 cases have ever been reported, 13 of which were confirmed surgically. 1 In this systematic literature review, we provide the largest and most comprehensive review of surgically treated patients with AWS, and we include 2 cases from our own institution’s experience. Methods Eligibility Criteria Inclusion criteria specified all studies

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Lily H. Kim, Jennifer L. Quon, Felicia W. Sun, Kristen M. Wortman, Maheen M. Adamson and Odette A. Harris

focused on TBI. 12 In this review, we provide an overview of TBI in female veterans from a neurosurgical and rehabilitation perspective. We also explore relevant studies from the civilian neurosurgery and critical care literature with the aim of using our existing knowledge to better understand TBI in this underrepresented patient population. Methods To select studies for review, we performed a literature search using MEDLINE and Google Scholar. Reference lists in selected articles were also viewed to find any other relevant articles not identified by previous searches

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Aaron J. Clark, Michael M. Safaee, Nickalus R. Khan, Matthew T. Brown and Kevin T. Foley

appropriate statistical analysis, or systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials with consistent findings. Historically, Level I evidence for surgical techniques is rare. 23 However, Level I evidence does exist for tubular microdiscectomy and will be described later in the paper. Level II studies are prospective comparative studies or systematic reviews of either Level II studies or Level I studies with inconsistent findings. Level III comprises case-control studies, retrospective comparative studies, or systematic reviews of Level III studies. Levels IV and V are