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Daiana R. Pur, Roy Eagleson, Marcus Lo, Michael T. Jurkiewicz, Andrea Andrade, and Sandrine de Ribaupierre

, 10 Functional MRI (fMRI) indirectly measures neuronal activity by analyzing fluctuations in the blood oxygen level–dependent signal in response to a task (task-based fMRI) or at rest (resting-state fMRI [rs-fMRI]), and is increasingly used as a noninvasive language mapping alternative with relatively good concordance with conventional methods. 1 , 11 , 12 Task-based fMRI requires the performance of several language tests (e.g., verb generation, picture naming), each aimed at capturing distinct aspects of expressive and receptive language. The quality of the output

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Constantin Tuleasca, Jean Régis, Elena Najdenovska, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Thomas Bolton, Francois Delaire, Marion Vincent, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, and Dimitri Van de Ville

dynamics, with external events modulating rather than determining the activity of the system. 17 Resting-state fMRI has been successfully used for understanding many pathophysiological conditions, including movement disorders. 4 , 5 , 16 Functional connectivity or interconnectivity (IC)—if within a functional network—has been defined as a measure of temporal dependencies of neuronal activation between anatomically distant brain regions. In the present study, we attempted to correlate pretherapeutic IC—depicted in rs-fMRI within large-scale distributed neuronal networks

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Daniel A. Orringer

with a skilled imaging team to produce reliable results. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) utilizes low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations that occur in a coordinated fashion at rest in linked areas of the brain essential for specific functions, such as attention, visual processing, somato-motor, and language function. Resting-state fMRI often reveals more information about the cortical networks involved in cerebral function than task-based fMRI. In addition rs-fMRI does not require completion or compliance with a given task by the patient since imaging data are collected

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Karol Osipowicz, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, and Joseph I. Tracy

neuroanatomy of “at-risk” cognition and how it relates to the underlying pathology, but also use such insights to predict cognitive outcome following surgery, such as anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for epilepsy. The predictive power and the combined clinical utility of 3 major MRI techniques (functional MRI [fMRI], resting state fMRI [rsfMRI], and diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]) are unknown and untested. These 3 modalities can be conceptually combined to obtain a more complete view of the neural modules and connectivity networks implementing cognition and driving

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Virendra R. Desai, Aditya Vedantam, Sandi K. Lam, Lucia Mirea, Stephen T. Foldes, Daniel J. Curry, P. David Adelson, Angus A. Wilfong, and Varina L. Boerwinkle

have shown the potential for fMRI to lateralize language in infants through an auditory task that involves listening to speech, the reliability of this technique has not been validated against other measures. This difficulty in validation is understandable given an infant’s inability to participate in other task-based and cooperation-dependent approaches such as Wada testing. 6 , 24 Recently, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been employed to lateralize language in healthy adults, healthy children, and adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and medically

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Yu Lei, Yan-Jiang Li, Qi-Hao Guo, Xing-Dang Liu, Zhuang Liu, Wei Ni, Jia-Bin Su, Heng Yang, Han-Qiang Jiang, Bin Xu, Yu-Xiang Gu, and Ying Mao

and neuronal activity, which provides insight into the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. 2 Thus far, ALFF analysis has been widely applied to detect spatial patterns in the brain activity of patients with cognitive impairment in fMRI studies. 15 , 24 Using this resting-state fMRI approach, the present study was carried out to investigate the functional correlates of executive performance in patients undergoing surgery to explore the underlying mechanism and to identify regions that may serve as markers to detect cognitive changes in the procedure

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Matthieu Vassal, Céline Charroud, Jérémy Deverdun, Emmanuelle Le Bars, François Molino, Francois Bonnetblanc, Anthony Boyer, Anirban Dutta, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Alain Bonafé, Hugues Duffau, and Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur

of motor and language networks after resection of brain tumors. The networks exhibited changes in their preoperative functional connectivity that correlated with the observed neurocognitive deficits. 5 , 32 The originality of this study is to identify the influence of DLGG resection on sensorimotor network's functional connectivity using resting state fMRI. Objectives and SMA Syndrome Biomarker Identification The objective of our study is to identify the reorganization functional connectivity of the sensorimotor network, using resting state fMRI, in

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Carl D. Hacker, Jarod L. Roland, Albert H. Kim, Joshua S. Shimony, and Eric C. Leuthardt

as age, cognitive impairment, neurological deficits, and poor cooperation. Task-based fMRI is also inherently limited in that it can only map components of brain functions that are represented by task paradigms and generally is only used to map a single function at a time. Many of the limitations of task-based fMRI are mitigated by the use of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Resting-state fMRI is based on the analysis of spontaneous very low-frequency (< 0.1 Hz) BOLD signal fluctuations, specifically the spatial patterns of correlations in signals across the brain. 13

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Varina L. Boerwinkle, Lucia Mirea, William D. Gaillard, Bethany L. Sussman, Diana Larocque, Alexandra Bonnell, Jennifer S. Ronecker, Matthew M. Troester, John F. Kerrigan, Stephen T. Foldes, Brian Appavu, Randa Jarrar, Korwyn Williams, Angus A. Wilfong, and P. David Adelson

planning for neuromodulation by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and responsive neurostimulation (RNS). Methods The local institutional review board granted approval for the retrospective review of the clinical impact of rs-fMRI utilized prospectively to guide neurosurgery. Resting-state fMRI became the standard evaluation for epilepsy surgery in May 2017 at the study institution, given the evidence that surgical targeting of the rs-fMRI–detected SOZ improved surgical outcomes with a good safety profile in the pediatric general epilepsy population. 4 Therefore, no

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Silvio Sarubbo, Domenico Zacà, Lisa Novello, Luciano Annicchiarico, Francesco Corsini, Umberto Rozzanigo, Franco Chioffi, and Jorge Jovicich

W e are grateful to the authors of the 2 editorials on clinical resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for their positive and constructive comments about the paper published by our group in this issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery . These editorials give us the chance to further highlight limitations and perspectives of the approach we proposed. Resting-state fMRI is an established and consolidated technique for the exploration of neural networks at the whole-brain level in human neuroscientific research. 11 As a consequence, many research groups have