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Carolyn E. Schwartz, Roland B. Stark, Phumeena Balasuberamaniam, Mopina Shrikumar, Abeer Wasim, and Joel A. Finkelstein

studies. Given the challenges of maintaining high-quality data in clinical studies, it would be important to evaluate the contribution of each PRO to confirm that it merits the corresponding respondent burden and to consider whether relevant domains are missed or not measured as well as they could be. Interest in interpreting change over time in PROs has led to a helpful body of research defining responsiveness 36 and examining methodological differences in characterizing the change over time 22 , 34 and theoretical work highlighting its nuances. 33 , 35 Generally

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Alvaro Ibaseta, Rafa Rahman, Nicholas S. Andrade, Richard L. Skolasky, Khaled M. Kebaish, Daniel M. Sciubba, and Brian J. Neuman

P atient-reported outcomes (PROs) are tools to assess patients’ health-related quality of life. PROs have become an important measure of treatment success. 1 Valid and responsive PROs, with adequate discriminant ability, are needed to evaluate and compare treatments. Clinicians have traditionally used disease-specific PROs. In adult spinal deformity (ASD), legacy (i.e., traditional) PROs such as the Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire (SRS-22r) are commonly used. Although legacy PROs are validated and reliable, they are static, disease

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Michael F. Barbaro, Kelsi Chesney, Daniel R. Kramer, Spencer Kellis, Terrance Peng, Zack Blumenfeld, Angad S. Gogia, Morgan B. Lee, Janet Greenwood, George Nune, Laura A. Kalayjian, Christianne N. Heck, Charles Y. Liu, and Brian Lee

I t is estimated that approximately 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy. 11 In 70%–85% of patients, seizure remission occurs within 3–5 years of starting antiseizure drugs. 6 , 8 For patients with epilepsy refractory to medication, the gold standard of therapy is resective neurosurgery as an adjunct to antiseizure drugs. 13 , 15 , 16 However, not all patients are eligible for resection. Those with multiple foci or nonresectable seizure onset zones are not candidates 5 for therapeutic epilepsy surgery but may be candidates for closed-loop brain-responsive

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Thu-Trang Hickman, Matthew E. Shuman, Tatyana A. Johnson, Felix Yang, Rebecca R. Rice, Isaac M. Rice, Esther H. Chung, Robert Wiemann, Megan Tinl, Christine Iracheta, Grace Chen, Patricia Flynn, Mary Beth Mondello, Jillian Thompson, Mary-Ellen Meadows, Rona S. Carroll, Hong Wei Yang, Hongyan Xing, David Pilgrim, E. Antonio Chiocca, Ian F. Dunn, Alexandra J. Golby, and Mark D. Johnson

improve the symptoms, 14 , 22 , 37 iNPH has been classified as one of the reversible dementias. The etiology of shunt-responsive iNPH is unknown. However, clinical studies of iNPH have led to multiple hypotheses regarding its origins. Abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature and defects in CSF circulation are among the leading candidates. In support of the vascular hypothesis, several studies have reported an increased association of vascular risk factors with shunt-responsive iNPH. 7 , 9 , 11 , 16 , 18 , 21 , 23 , 24 , 33 , 34 Hypertension, diabetes, and cardiac

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Masayuki Matsuda, Shunichi Yoneda, Hiroshi Gotoh, Jyoji Handa, and Hajime Handa

inhibitor, does not cause any changes in CBF in the resting state. 3, 17, 31, 34 These reports indicate that cholinergic nerves have no tonic influence on cerebral blood vessels in the resting state, but dilate them once stimulated. It is reported that cerebrovascular responsiveness to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is not influenced by cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine. 20 On the other hand, there are some reports that cerebrovascular responsiveness to CO 2 is blocked by atropine 15, 31 and enhanced by cholinesterase inhibitor. 1 The present experiment was

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Julio C. Furlan and B. Catharine Craven

the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability, validity, and responsiveness) of the 1975 JOA score and its derived versions for use in the CSM population. Methods Literature Search Strategy The primary literature search was carried out in Medline, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and American College of Physicians Journal Club to identify studies reporting on the psychometric properties of the JOA score and published from January 1975 to November 2015. The search criteria included subject headings (“JOA

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Current reporting of responsiveness in acute cerebral disorders

A survey of the neurosurgical literature

Jan-Erik Starmark, Eddy Holmgren, and Daniel Stålhammar

A ssessment of overall patient responsiveness (coma grading) is a cornerstone in the characterization of acute brain disorders and the grading of their severity. Several coma scales have been published, but none of them has been included in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 61 or in the system for grading injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS). 1 Certain scales have been recommended for particular groups of patients. The Hunt and Hess scale (H & H, in five grades) 21 was designed specifically for patients with

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Rene Molina, Michael S. Okun, Jonathan B. Shute, Enrico Opri, P. Justin Rossi, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Kelly D. Foote, and Aysegul Gunduz

pathology can be detected in real time, stimulation can be delivered responsively, moving the field of neuromodulation away from continuous paradigms. To this end, we chose Tourette syndrome (TS) as a model, because of the presence of paroxysmal symptoms, known as tics. In a previous study, a small cohort of patients received implantable devices so that we could study the neural signatures of tics in order to inform manufacturers when developing future responsive stimulation systems. 10 During this initial stage of the study, stimulation was optimized and delivered on

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Andrew J. K. Smith, Douglas B. McCreery, James R. Bloedel, and Shelley N. Chou

central hemorrhagic infarct of the spinal cord, and, like peri-infarctional hyperemia of the brain, this spinal cord hyperemia is associated with loss of both autoregulation and responsiveness to increased pCO 2 . Materials and Methods General Methods The hydrogen clearance method was used in this study since it allows a highly focal measurement of regional spinal cord blood flow which can be repeated at precisely the same location in the same animal over several days. 5, 22 The measuring circuit consists of two platinum electrodes, a reference electrode, a

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Kelvin L. Chou, Mark S. Forman, John Q. Trojanowski, Howard I. Hurtig, and Gordon H. Baltuch

levodopa-responsive symptoms in PD, 3 patients with levodopa-resistant disorders such as MSA are not expected to benefit significantly from DBS. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about DBS in patients with MSA who respond to levodopa. We report the clinicopathological findings in a patient with levodopa-responsive parkinsonism in whom the clinical course was typical of PD, but who responded poorly to DBS of the STN and in whom the neuropathological features of MSA were found on autopsy, as well as an atypical inflammatory response to the DBS electrodes. Case