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Sandra L. Poliachik, Andrew V. Poliakov, Laura A. Jansen, Sharon S. McDaniel, Carter D. Wray, John Kuratani, Russell P. Saneto, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Edward J. Novotny Jr

overlaid onto anatomical MRI scans, allowing the neurosurgeon to identify relevant tissues during procedures. In addition, most IGS systems allow the neurosurgeon to perform virtual labeling of anatomical regions or electrodes by using landmarks in a coordinate system that is specific to the IGS system. We have developed a technique in a pediatric population in which we used intraoperative surgical landmarks to assist in identifying intracranial EEG electrode placement and in localizing the tissue removed during resective epilepsy surgery. Data from intracranial EEG

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Osama Muthaffar, Klajdi Puka, Luc Rubinger, Cristina Go, O. Carter Snead III, James T. Rutka, and Elysa Widjaja

study were to assess outcomes following reoperation for pediatric epilepsy at a tertiary care pediatric epilepsy center and to evaluate the factors associated with favorable seizure control. Identifying such factors is important in selecting appropriate patients who may benefit from reoperation and in providing diagnostic indicators of possible outcomes. Methods Patients We performed a retrospective health record analysis of all patients who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between January 1, 2001

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Daniel J. DiLorenzo, Erwin Z. Mangubat, Marvin A. Rossi, and Richard W. Byrne

T he irreversible nature of resective epilepsy surgery imposes a barrier to its acceptance despite its potential to provide seizure freedom; consequently, substantial unmet need is driving innovations along 2 pathways: 1) development of reversible neuromodulatory technologies and 2) refinement in presurgical patient assessment and seizure circuit source localization. Technological advancements in noninvasive multimodality functional imaging, such as subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and PET, aid in both

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Ravindra Arya, Jeffrey R. Tenney, Paul S. Horn, Hansel M. Greiner, Katherine D. Holland, James L. Leach, Michael J. Gelfand, Leonid Rozhkov, Hisako Fujiwara, Douglas F. Rose, David N. Franz, and Francesco T. Mangano

networks to generate seizures. 11 It is further uncertain if all tubers are equivalent in terms of seizure genesis or whether certain tuber characteristics reliably predict occurrence, type(s), or burden of seizures in an individual patient. However, the association of medically refractory epilepsy in TSC with increased prevalence of intellectual disability and psychobehavioral morbidity has been well recognized. 6 , 13 Hence, such patients are usually evaluated for epilepsy surgery in an attempt to reduce seizure burden. Traditionally, resective epilepsy surgery has

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Chima O. Oluigbo, Jichuan Wang, Matthew T. Whitehead, Suresh Magge, John S. Myseros, Amanda Yaun, Dewi Depositario-Cabacar, William D. Gaillard, and Robert Keating

. There has never been, to our knowledge, a study focused on the volumetric analysis of radiological factors that can predict seizure outcome after surgery for FCD. Our objective in this study was to analyze volumetrically the factors in the preresection and postresection brain MRI scans of patients who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery for cortical dysplasia and the influence of these factors on seizure outcome. We examined the influence of preoperative lesion volume, resection volume, and the resection volume/lesion volume (RV/LV) ratio on seizure outcome. We

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Matthew F. Sacino, Cheng-Ying Ho, Jonathan Murnick, Robert F. Keating, William D. Gaillard, and Chima O. Oluigbo

deficits. 13 , 19 , 30 , 31 Furthermore, iMRI has been successfully integrated into pediatric cases and has been shown to aid in intraoperative evaluation of the extent of resection in epilepsy surgery. 3 , 4 , 21 , 32 Hence, we sought to adapt this technology in resective epilepsy surgery for epileptogenic lesions located adjacent to eloquent cortex. The current study is a comparative analysis of postoperative seizure and neurological outcomes in patients undergoing resection of FCD and heterotopias adjacent to eloquent cortex using iMRI-assisted versus conventional

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Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Takanobu Kaido, Yuu Kaneko, Masaki Iwasaki, Nobutaka Kawahara, and Taisuke Otsuki

that was developed in order to avoid ischemic complications at the pyramidal tract in patients undergoing resective epilepsy surgery around the superoposterior part of the insula. That is, we spared a small piece of gray matter at the bottom of the periinsular sulcus, where perfusing vessels to the pyramidal tract originate in passing through the insular cortex. This method was successfully applied in 3 patients harboring focal cortical dysplasia at the insula and frontoparietal operculum surrounding the periinsular sulcus. Acknowledgments We wish to acknowledge Dr

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Aria Fallah, Alexander G. Weil, Samir Sur, Ian Miller, Prasanna Jayakar, Glenn Morrison, Sanjiv Bhatia, and John Ragheb

tumors in eloquent brain regions, with the aid of modern tools such as stereotaxy, the intraoperative microscope, intraoperative ultrasound, the ultrasonic aspirator, evoked potentials, and advanced functional neuroimaging. A retrospective observational study by Alsemari et al. found that resective epilepsy surgery in benign central nervous system tumors results in 73.4% and 66.5% seizure freedom at 1 and 5 years postoperatively, respectively. 1 In a cohort of adult patients with epileptic seizures associated with diffuse LGGs, the extent of resection (subtotal vs

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Karl Roessler, Andrea Hofmann, Bjoern Sommer, Peter Grummich, Roland Coras, Burkard Sebastian Kasper, Hajo M. Hamer, Ingmar Blumcke, Hermann Stefan, Christopher Nimsky, and Michael Buchfelder

outcome with surgical management of epileptogenic ganglioglioma: a study of 55 patients . Acta Neurochir (Wien) 154 : 855 – 861 , 2012 42 Janszky J , Janszky I , Schulz R , Hoppe M , Behne F , Pannek HW , : Temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: predictors for long-term surgical outcome . Brain 128 : 395 – 404 , 2005 43 Jobst BC , Cascino GD : Resective epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy: a review . JAMA 313 : 285 – 293 , 2015 44 Joo EY , Han HJ , Lee EK , Choi S , Jin JH , Kim JH

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Alena Jahodová, Barbora Beňová, Martin Kudr, Petr Ježdík, Radek Janča, Anežka Bělohlávková, Petr Liby, Róbert Leško, Michal Tichý, Pavel Čelakovský, and Pavel Kršek

, the stimulation pulse width varies between 0.14 and 200 msec, the frequency between 5 and 50 Hz, the current intensity between 0.5 and 20 mA, and the train duration between 3 and 25 seconds. 19 Differences in responses to ESM between children and adults have only rarely been studied. 15 , 20 , 21 In addition, there is an apparent lack of studies comprising large series of children undergoing resective epilepsy surgery in the proximity of the primary motor area and/or corticospinal tract, especially studies reporting results in the youngest age groups. Therefore