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Stephen C. Saris, Nicholas J. Patronas, Steven A. Rosenberg, Joseph T. Alexander, Joseph Frank, Douglas J. Schwartzentruber, Joshua T. Rubin, David Barba and Edward H. Oldfield

in the neurological examination. In summary, adoptive immunotherapy with IL-2 and LAK cells has been demonstrated to have antitumor activity in patients with certain systemic tumors such as melanoma and renal-cell cancer. However, cancers of the brain present special and difficult problems such as poor tolerance of cerebral tissue to increased interstitial water content and poor penetration of many antitumor agents across the blood-tumor and blood-brain barriers. Due to increased brain edema and production of clinically significant deterioration in neurological

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Vidar Bosnes and Henry Hirschberg

other monoclonal specificities is the object for further studies. Acknowledgments The technical assistance of Inga Skaftadottir is greatly appreciated. The authors also thank Dr. Thomas Waldman for the gift of anti-Tac antibody, Gustav Gaudernack for the gift of antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and Drs. Erik Thorsby and Frode Vartdal for comments on the manuscript. References 1. Belldegrun A , Muul LM , Rosenberg SA : Interleukin-2 expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human renal cell cancer: isolation

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T-cell receptor V-gene usage in neoplasms of the central nervous system

A comparative analysis in cultured tumor infiltrating and peripheral blood T cells

Adrian Merlo, Luis Filgueira, Markus Zuber, Antonio Juretic, Felix Harder, Otmar Gratzi, Gennaro De Libero, Michael Heberer and Giulio C. Spagnoli

tumors. Acknowledgments Thanks are due to Drs. V. Von Fliedner, G. Wandus, and J. Tratkiewitz of Lausanne, Switzerland, and Dr. C. Ausiello of Rome, Italy, for constructive criticism and for reviewing the manuscript and to Mrs. V. Caetano for expert technical assistance. References 1. Belldegrun A , Muul LM , Rosenberg SA : Interleukin 2 expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human renal cell cancer; isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity. Cancer Res 48 : 206 – 214 , 1988 Belldegrun A, Muul

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Terry Lichtor, Roberta P. Glick, Tae Sung Kim, Roger Hand and Edward P. Cohen

al : Treatment of 283 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell cancer using high-dose bolus interleukin 2. JAMA 271 : 907 – 913 , 1994 Rosenberg SA, Yang JC, Topalian SL, et al: Treatment of 283 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell cancer using high-dose bolus interleukin 2. JAMA 271: 907–913, 1994 26. Saris SC , Spiess P , Lieberman DM , et al : Treatment of murine primary brain tumors with systemic interleukin-2 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. J Neurosurg

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Akio Morita, Fredric B. Meyer and Edward R. Laws Jr.

days, whereas the longest survival time was 5 years. Because of the small numbers in each group, no statistically significant data could be determined regarding treatment options. Thirteen patients survived longer than 1 year and this appeared to be more common in those treated with surgery (seven cases). This group consisted primarily of patients who harbored slow-growing malignancies that included breast cancer in six patients, grade 2 colon adenocarcinoma in one, grade 2 renal cell cancer in one, plasmacytoma in one, and lung cancer in four. Although it is not

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Marius Maxwell, Lawrence F. Borges and Nicholas T. Zervas

, Shattuck-Eidens D , Eeles R , et al : Analysis of the p16 gene (CDKN2) as a candidate for the chromosome 9p melanoma susceptibility locus. Nat Genet 8 : 22 – 23 , 1994 Kamb A, Shattuck-Eidens D, Eeles R, et al: Analysis of the p16 gene (CDKN2) as a candidate for the chromosome 9p melanoma susceptibility locus. Nat Genet 8: 22–23, 1994 17. Katagiri A , Watanabe R , Tomita Y : E-cadherin expression in renal cell cancer and its significance in metastasis and survival. Br J Cancer 71 : 376 – 379

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Praveen Deshmukh, Roberta P. Glick, Terry Lichtor, Risha Moser and Edward P. Cohen

cytokine stimulation in the tumor microenvironment or by genetic modification of the cells to express foreign MHC determinants. Cytokines have been used in systemic therapy for tumors outside the CNS. In particular, systemic biological therapy involving IL-2 has been shown to result in significant antitumor effects in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma or renal-cell cancer. 26, 27 Interleukin-2 has no direct toxic effect on cancer cells. Its antitumor activity is mediated by modulation of the host's immunological response to the neoplasm. Interleukin-2

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Norimoto Nakahara, Hideho Okada, Timothy F. Witham, Jason Attanucci, Wendy K. Fellows, William H. Chambers, Ajay Niranjan, Douglas Kondziolka and Ian F. Pollack

cells in the antitumor immune response. J Exp Med 188 : 2357 – 2368 , 1998 Hung K, Hayashi R, Lafond-Walker A, et al: The central role of CD4(+) T cells in the antitumor immune response. J Exp Med 188: 2357–2368, 1998 12. Hurst R , White DE , Heiss J , et al : Brain metastasis after immunotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell cancer: is craniotomy indicated? J Immunother 22 : 356 – 362 , 1999 Hurst R, White DE, Heiss J, et al: Brain metastasis after immunotherapy in patients with

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Hitoshi Kimura, Toshinari Meguro, Ahmed Badr and John H. Zhang

and G protein—coupled receptor systems, indicating a possible role of suramin in the treatment of vasospasm. Suramin: A New Candidate for Vasospasm Treatment Suramin is an inhibitor of growth factor receptors, 11, 23, 29 receptor—G protein coupling, 8, 19 and P2X and P2Y receptors. 17 This agent inhibits proliferation, 24, 54 angiogenesis, 5 Ca ++ elevation, 49, 63 and contraction 48 in vascular systems, including the cerebral vascular systems. This agent has been used in clinical trials of prostate cancer, 30 lymphoma, renal cell cancer, breast

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Johanna M. M. Gijtenbeek, Bram Jacobs, Sandra H. E. Sprenger, Marc J. Eleveld, Ad Geurts van Kessel, Johan M. Kros, Raf Sciot, Frank van Calenbergh, Pieter Wesseling and Judith W. M. Jeuken

MJ , et al : An alternative route for multistep tumorigenesis in a novel case of hereditary renal cell cancer and a t(2;3)(q35;q21) chromosome translocation. Am J Hum Genet 62 : 1475 – 1483 , 1998 Bodmer D, Eleveld MJ, Ligtenberg MJ, et al: An alternative route for multistep tumorigenesis in a novel case of hereditary renal cell cancer and a t(2;3)(q35;q21) chromosome translocation. Am J Hum Genet 62: 1475–1483, 1998 4. Böhling T , Plate KH , Haltia , et al : Von Hippel-Lindau disease and capillary