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David I. Sandberg, Mark A. Edgar, and Mark M. Souweidane

. The duration of the infusions ranged from 5 to 40 minutes, depending on the total V i assigned to the experimental group. Animal Procedures After a surgical plane of anesthesia had been established, the rat's head was shaved with clippers and secured in a stereotactic frame. The animal's eyes were then lubricated with sterile petrolatum-based ocular lubricant. A No. 11 scalpel blade was used to make a scalp incision extending from the frontal region just anterior to the bregma to approximately 2 cm caudal to the medial edge of the lambdoid suture. The

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R. Dean Linden, Yi-Ping Zhang, Darlene A. Burke, Matthew A. Hunt, John E. Harpring, and Christopher B. Shields

generated by charging a capacitor bank, which is then discharged rapidly through a coil. The advantages of TMMEP monitoring are that it does not cause pain and is a noninvasive and relatively easy technique to use. 1, 4 We have evaluated the usefulness of this monitoring technique as a test for monitoring spinal cord function during spine and/or spinal cord surgery. 6, 12, 21, 22 One problem associated with using TMMEP monitoring during surgery is that it is extremely sensitive to various anesthetics. To study this problem we worked with canine and rat models to

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Mineko Murakami, Chizuka Ide, and Haruyuki Kanaya

considerably improved. In order to examine this possibility, a local injury to the rat optic nerve was induced by cold injury, which did not damage the basal lamina of the GLM. Successive regenerative changes were then observed in the axons and glial cells in the lesion. In the present study, a moderate number of regenerating axons appeared in the lesion in the early stages and continued to survive at least 3 months after injury. Early reactive and subsequent regenerative changes in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were also seen. Besides these intraoptic regenerating axons

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James M. Herman, Robert F. Spetzler, Joshua B. Bederson, James M. Kurbat, and Joseph M. Zabramski

skull with cyanoacrylate cement to prevent movement. Both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and SSP were recorded throughout each experiment. The rats were divided into five groups (two control and three experimental ) ( Fig. 1 ) to permit the evaluation of venous hypertension and sinus thrombosis both independently and together. Fig. 1. Illustrations depicting the rat vascular anatomy and the different experimental protocols. A: Control II protocol. Occlusion of the vein draining the transverse sinus, ligation of the external jugular vein, and thrombosis of the

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Diana Barrett Wiseman, Andrew T. Dailey, David Lundin, Jiegang Zhou, Adam Lipson, Alexis Falicov, and Christopher I. Shaffrey

the quinolinate. Complete neuroprotection was noted when 600 mg/kg was administered within 1 hour of injury, whereas incomplete protection was noted for the animals treated after 3 hours. In a similar model of kainite-induced injury, magnesium at the higher dose of 600 mg/kg injected subcutaneously was the most effective dose for neuroprotection, compared with doses of 300 and 150 mg/kg. 46 Peak levels of 4.8 mEq/L were reached at 1 hour. In a rat TBI model, Heath 14 and Vink and Cernak 44 found a neuroprotective effect for magnesium (750 μmol/kg) even when it

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Yuji Kinuta, Mieko Kimura, Yoshinori Itokawa, Masatsune Ishikawa, and Haruhiko Kikuchi

produced by a modification of the method described by Pulsinelli and Brierley. 15 After anesthesia was induced with 50 mg/kg intraperitoneal pentobarbital, each rat was paralyzed with intraperitoneal administration of pancuronium bromide. Immediately after immobilization, tracheostomy was performed and the animal was artificially ventilated to maintain the arterial O 2 tension above 100 mm Hg and the CO 2 tension close to 35 mm Hg. A right femoral artery was cannulated for monitoring blood pressure and blood sampling for gas analysis. Body temperature was kept close

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Stanislaw Krajewski, Jürgen C. W. Kiwit, and Wolfgang Wechsler

days after implantation of RG2 multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS's) in a rat. b: Frontally sectioned cerebellum of a rat after 14 days subdural growth of RG2 MTS's. Note the intracerebellar and epicranial (extracerebellar) expansion of the tumor. The frontal section (left) was chosen for relative tumor area morphometry. Fig. 5. Growth curves of syngeneic RG2 multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS's) implanted under the dura of the cerebellum. Curves are derived by evaluating the superficial morphometry in the nonfixed stage (A) and by cross median area

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Stephen K. Powers, William C. Beckman Jr., J. Tony Brown, and Linda C. Kolpack

accumulate Rh-123 (K Ellington, SK Powers, in preparation) so that a high therapeutic ratio of Rh-123 is achieved in tumor compared to brain. In the rat, clinical signs of toxicity are not seen following the intravenous injection of Rh-123 in doses equal to or less than 20 mg/kg of body weight. Nonthermal levels of blue-green light generated from an argon laser will photoactivate Rh-123 into a cytocidal species. The combination of Rh-123 and blue-green light results in a time-dependent killing of human malignant cells in vitro . 14 We have used Rh-123 and interstitially

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T. Ken Yoshida, Keiji Shimizu, Athanasios Koulousakis, and volker sturm

intrathecally and intravenously with ACNU according to its pathophysiological stages. In this report, a remarkable efficacy of intrathecal treatment with a low dose of ACNU is described in a rat model of meningeal gliomatosis, and several pathophysiological problems associated with the treatment of meningeal gliomatosis are discussed. Materials and Methods Tumor Tissue and Animals Male Wistar rats, each weighing approximately 100 gm, and the well-established rat C6 glioma cell line 2 were used in these experiments. The C6 glioma cells were cultured in Eagle

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Yasuhiro Kuroda, Fiona M. Inglis, Jimmy D. Miller, James McCulloch, David I. Graham, and Ross Bullock

under an acute subdural hematoma, even when the hematoma is thin, suggesting that mass effect and hemispheric compression may not be the only factors damaging the underlying brain. 4 Studies in rat model have recently shown that acute subdural hematoma induces a massive release of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate in the cortex under the hematoma, suggesting that an excitotoxic process may contribute to the ischemic damage seen in this model. 3, 14, 15 In the present study, we measured local cerebral glucose utilization at 2 or 4