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Stuart Hall and Robert A. Bornstein

, Performance IQ, and Full-Scale IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). 20 Because of their similar psychometric properties, direct comparisons can be made between WAIS-R IQ scores and WMS-R Index scores within and between groups. Bornstein, et al. , 6 used this approach to investigate IQ/memory discrepancies from the WAIS-R and WMS-R in normal individuals and in a heterogeneous clinical sample with diagnoses likely to be associated with memory dysfunction. They found that the discrepancy in score between Full-Scale IQ and the Delayed Memory Index

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Paul Klimo Jr., Garrett T. Venable, Nickalus R. Khan, Douglas R. Taylor, Brandon A. Shepherd, Clinton J. Thompson and Nathan R. Selden

citations with publications ranked in decreasing order for a researcher. The point at which the number of citations equals the number of publications is the h-index. The area of the curve under A + B + C equals the total number of citations. The square root of the number of citations in A is the e-index, B is the h-index, and A + B is the r-index. m-Quotient The m-quotient is the h-index divided by the number of years since the author's first publication. 11 It is a metric of continued publishing productivity and was developed to correct for the duration of an

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S. Kathleen Bandt and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

application to a specific entity; each uniquely measures the performance of a journal, article, or author. We introduce here a novel bibliometric tool termed the reverberation index (r-index). We believe that there is value in understanding how a concept or finding in the literature is evaluated and applied to a certain scientific discipline. The extent to which such an entity surfaces and resurfaces (reverberates) in the literature of a given discipline is an indicator of its significance in the development of new knowledge and progress in patient care. Methods and

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Ryan P. Lee, Raymond Xu, Pooja Dave, Sonia Ajmera, Jock C. Lillard, David Wallace, Austin Broussard, Mustafa Motiwala, Sebastian Norrdahl, Carissa Howie, Oluwatomi Akinduro, Garrett T. Venable, Nickalus R. Khan, Douglas R. Taylor, Brandy N. Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

space, equipment, funding) and project oversight. On the other hand, “gift” middle authorship is a well-established practice in neurosurgery. 13 The revised h -index ( r -index), was recently introduced to provide more weight to first or last authorship as compared with middle authorship. 23 More specifically, the r -index is simply an h -index with first or last authorship weighted 4 times as much as middle authorship. In this study, we applied, for the first time, the i h (5)-index to the 28 Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowship (ACPNF

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Jeffrey P. Blount

citation index and productivity into a single value. 1 , 3 It was originally used for the comparison of individuals but has been increasingly used to compare academic departments and programs. 3–5 The h-index has been refined to the ih(5)-index to reflect academic productivity in discrete 5-year intervals. 5 The failure of the h-index to adequately control for variable effort and contributions among authors led to the development of the r-index (replicability index). An important and recent study utilized the ih(5)-index to compare the productivity of each of the

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Sonia Ajmera, Ryan P. Lee, Andrew Schultz, David S. Hersh, Jacob Lepard, Raymond Xu, Hassan Saad, Olutomi Akinduro, Melissa Justo, Brittany D. Fraser, Mustafa Motiwala, Pooja Dave, Brian Jimenez, David A. Wallace, Olufemi Osikoya, Sebastian Norrdahl, Jennings H. Dooley, Nickalus R. Khan, Brandy N. Vaughn, Cormac O. Maher and Paul Klimo Jr.

indices have been introduced that focus on discrete time periods in order to emphasize recent achievements (e.g., 5-year institutional Hirsch index [i h 5]) and authorship rank in order to give greater recognition to differences in project investment (e.g., the revised h -index [ r -index]). 20 , 21 , 27 , 28 , 30 , 33 , 38 More recent publications have evaluated resident productivity. 16 , 20 , 36 Within pediatric neurosurgery, publication productivity has been explored for individuals and departments using the h -index and its variants. 15 , 24 We recently