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Ravi Kumar, Ramesh Kumar, Grant W. Mallory, Jeffrey T. Jacob, David J. Daniels, Nicholas M. Wetjen, Andrew B. Foy, Brent R. O’Neill and Michelle J. Clarke

study. Our data does not allow us to determine the true incidence or prevalence of intracranial injury secondary to nonpowder guns. Additionally, limitations and subjectivity of follow-up make it difficult to understand the long-term sequelae of these injuries. However, the destructive injuries recorded in this study and the technological advances of these weapons, which exceed public awareness, make this a public health concern. Just as we have a responsibility to counsel patients and families on the importance of helmet use, pediatric neurosurgeons responding to

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Michael Ragheb, Ashish H. Shah, Sarah Jernigan, Tulay Koru-Sengul and John Ragheb

for implementation of a public health intervention to avoid these perinatal/neonatal infections and ultimately reduce the burden of PIH in Haiti. Investigation into the association of climate and geography may also shed light on possible causes and sources of PIH. Research must be extended to a broader, unbiased sample population in order to more fully characterize the extent of hydrocephalus in Haiti. Because long-term follow-up, outcomes of surgical treatment, and missing observations were not readily available in our initial review, a RedCap database ( http

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Marjorie C. Wang, Frederick A. Boop, Douglas Kondziolka, Daniel K. Resnick, Steven N. Kalkanis, Elizabeth Koehnen, Nathan R. Selden, Carl B. Heilman, Alex B. Valadka, Kevin M. Cockroft, John A. Wilson, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Anthony L. Asher, Richard W. Byrne, Paul J. Camarata, Judy Huang, John J. Knightly, Elad I. Levy, Russell R. Lonser, E. Sander Connolly Jr., Fredric B. Meyer and Linda M. Liau

learning over time and meet ABMS requirements for CC. Conclusions The ABNS mission is to elevate standards for the practice of neurological surgery, in recognition of the need for detailed training and special qualifications for neurosurgeons and for self-regulation of quality and safety in the field. The ABNS is an activist board that continues to rapidly evolve and improve its activities to better serve the field of neurological surgery and the cause of public health. Acknowledgments We acknowledge K. Orrico, JD; J. G. Schneider, JD; and A. Dall-Knox. Disclosures Dr

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Brian P. Walcott, Brian V. Nahed, Kristopher T. Kahle, Navid Redjal and Jean-Valery Coumans

institutions. Internet use also varies widely by sex, socioeconomic background, and English literacy. 6 , 9 The geographic distribution by state of reported Internet usage for individuals is varied; 8 however, our model normalizes for overall search engine traffic. The heterogeneity of stroke symptoms precludes the analysis of individual query terms. The disease-specific search, related to stroke, was made the core of our model. The identification of these geographic differences provided a metric to evaluate health disparities, allowing for the potential to direct public

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James L. West, Kyle M. Fargen, Wesley Hsu, Charles L. Branch Jr. and Daniel E. Couture

. 7 , 13 Assessing aggregate databases established from public health data for rates of neurosurgically treatable diseases such as hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke or tumor incidence would follow out of this. These data could then potentially be combined with regional social media posts or Internet activity related to key terms defined for each neurosurgical disease process. Combining traditionally slow-adjusting input types such as epidemiological databases with different, more fluid media such as Internet activity and social media presence

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Rebecca Y. Du, Melissa A. LoPresti, Roxanna M. García and Sandi Lam

% of all registered vehicles. 3 Bicycles, scooters, and motorcycles are increasingly popular modes of transportation in LMICs, with young people and pediatric populations dependent on these modes of transportation to attend school, gain employment, and so on. Often passengers are unhelmeted, and pediatric and adolescent patients suffering TBI from RTAs are an increasing public health concern among younger populations (from infants to young adults) around the world. 61 In light of globally low rates of helmet use and increasing incidence of TBI, a systematic review

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Julie Dubourg and Mahmoud Messerer

N ontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage constitutes a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for 2 million (10%–15%) 81 of about 15 million strokes worldwide each year. 60 In the US, on average, someone has a stroke every 40 seconds. 60 Its direct cost is around US$12.7 billion of the US$73.7 billion related to stroke care annually. 60 Despite active research, it is still the least treatable cause of stroke and a leading cause of morbidity, disability, and death worldwide. 75 During the first month after ICH onset, the proportion of patients

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Susan E. Mackinnon, Andrew Yee and Wilson Z. Ray

S pinal cord injury is a devastating condition, representing a significant public health problem. 1 The incidence of new SCIs is estimated at nearly 40 cases per million persons annually in the US. 44 The average age of affected individuals is less than 40 years, 40 and it is estimated that approximately 259,000 Americans are currently living with an SCI. 39 Recovery from a complete SCI is exceedingly rare, leaving most patients with significant permanent disability. Spinal cord injury consists of 2 distinct injury patterns: 1) the initial mechanical

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Melissa LoPresti, Sandi Lam, Katie Orrico, Samuel R. Browd, Richard G. Ellenbogen and Jonathan Martin

group’s positions on political and public health issues. Based on the growing trends in modern neurosurgery regarding advocacy, promoting child health policy and education, and collaboration to improve access to care in underserved areas, the membership of the ASPN was surveyed with the aim of better understanding priorities for advocacy efforts for this national pediatric neurosurgical organization. Methods A 10-item survey was assembled to determine membership interest in organized advocacy as well as attitudes and impressions regarding the scope and structure of

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Emun Abdu, Daniel F. Hanley and David W. Newell

S pontaneous ICH is a serious public health problem accounting for 10%–15% of strokes. 34 In the United States, 60,000–120,000 patients suffer from hemorrhagic strokes each year, and the incidence has been increasing due to an aging population in addition to an increased use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents for thromboembolic diseases. On average, only 20%–40% of those who suffer an ICH are expected to have functional outcomes at 6 months. 9 Moreover, the cost of care for patients with ICH is among the highest of all brain disorders. 39 Half