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Ari J. Kane, Michael E. Sughrue, Martin J. Rutkowski, Derick Aranda, Steve A. Mills, Raphael Buencamino, Shanna Fang, Igor J. Barani and Andrew T. Parsa

a Boolean PubMed search using the key words “esthesioneuroblastoma,” “olfactory neuroblastoma,” “surgery,” “Kadish,” “Hyams,” “radiation therapy,” “prognosis,” and “aesthesioneuroblastoma” alone and in combination. We then searched all references in these papers. Inclusion criteria for this set of articles were as follows: 1) individual patient data were reported in a disaggregated fashion; 2) primary treatment modality was clearly reported and limited to surgery, radiotherapy, conventional chemotherapy, or any combination thereof; and 3) outcome data including

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Jan Brismar and Göran Sundbärg

I n a significant percentage of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), no cause of the bleeding is found in spite of a complete angiographic evaluation. 3, 7, 10, 11 Computerized tomography (CT) in such patients sometimes demonstrates intracerebral hemorrhages too small to be observed on angiography. 5 In spite of CT, however, in some 20% to 30% of patients with SAH no origin is found. 1, 2, 4, 5, 11 It has long been known that the prognosis for these patients is more favorable than for those with a demonstrable bleeding source. 7, 9 Information

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Anthony J. Caputy, David C. McCullough, Herbert J. Manz, Kathleen Patterson and Mary Kathryn Hammock

seem to produce the most lasting control of the tumor. 5, 11, 15, 17, 18, 25, 29, 31, 32, 34, 45, 49 However, the long-term adverse effects of such aggressive therapy on growth, intellectual development, and endocrine and hematopoietic function have produced a therapeutic dilemma. 12, 16, 44 The rule on the “period of risk” proposed by Collins, et al. , 10 has been applied when evaluating prognosis with medulloblastoma. This rule states that the period of risk for recurrence is equal to the age at presentation plus 9 months of gestational age. Survival beyond

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Ankush Chandra, Jonathan W. Rick, Cecilia Dalle Ore, Darryl Lau, Alan T. Nguyen, Diego Carrera, Alexander Bonte, Annette M. Molinaro, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger and Manish K. Aghi

populations and affect the prognosis of cancer patients. 31 , 35 In a population-based study by Walker et al., the authors revealed that patients with one of the 10 most deadly cancers (excluding all brain malignancies) had worse survival outcomes if they were uninsured or had Medicaid coverage. 35 Moreover, studies by Curry et al. and Momin et al. demonstrated that in patients with craniotomies, insurance status affected prognosis, with privately insured patients enjoying a better overall survival when compared to those with Medicaid or those who were uninsured. 4 , 18

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Chang Sub Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Joong Shin Park, Jong-Kwan Jun, Bo Hyun Yoon, Young-Ho Lee, Son Moon Shin, Yeon Kyung Lee and Byung-Kyu Cho

V entriculomegaly is one of the most common congenital anomalies affecting the central nervous system in the fetus, 5 , 12 and it is known to be frequently associated with other intracranial anomalies that produce divergent clinical features. As a result of the routine use of ultrasonography in prenatal screening examinations, more cases of FVM are now being detected, and they are being detected earlier in gestation. However, the prognosis and clinical course appear to have become more variable, 17 thus hindering an accurate prediction of outcome. Some

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Kyu-Won Shim, Sun-Young Joo, Se-Hoon Kim, Joong-Uhn Choi and Dong-Seok Kim

rates, and, conversely, standard-risk patients should receive less aggressive therapies in an attempt to decrease morbidity. 28 , 40 Nevertheless, because we have encountered many exceptional cases showing unpredicted prognoses, numerous attempts have been made to identify the biological markers that could be useful in the prediction of medulloblastoma prognosis and in the further clinical subdivision of patients. Immunohistochemical techniques are potentially powerful tools for stratification of risk, which was recently recognized as being associated with advanced

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Neurological prognosis after traumatic quadriplegia

Three-year experience of California Regional Spinal Cord Injury Care System

Frederick M. Maynard, Glenn G. Reynolds, Steven Fountain, Conal Wilmot and Richard Hamilton

½-year period. Although only relatively small numbers exist in each category at this early stage of the project, some useful conclusions concerning general prognosis after spinal cord injury can already be made. The data also demonstrate many inherent problems in gathering accurate and useful information on patients with spinal cord injury. A revised system of grading neurological deficit and using fixed points in time after injury (72 hours and 1 year) rather than variable times (admission and discharge) for recording grade of deficit are suggested as improvements for

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Chirag G. Patil, Anthony Yi, Adam Elramsisy, Jethro Hu, Debraj Mukherjee, Dwain K. Irvin, John S. Yu, Serguei I. Bannykh, Keith L. Black and Miriam Nuño

unifocal glioblastoma groups. Verhaak et al. 25 have recently described 4 subtypes of glioblastoma (classical, mesenchymal, proneural, and neural) according to EGFR, neurofibromatosis Type 1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 status. These glioblastoma subtypes were shown to respond to therapies differently and had differential prognosis. Due to the retrospective nature of our molecular analysis and lack of currently available tissue, we were unable to investigate whether multifocal tumors in our cohort were clustered in 1 of these

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Maria A. Poca, Maria Mataró, Mar Matarín, Fuat Arikan, Carme Junqué and Juan Sahuquillo

, 33 severe dementia, 5, 15, 20, 21, 31 incomplete clinical triad, 2, 12 and absence of periventricular lucencies. 3, 33 The presence of some of these factors, whether isolated or in combination, does not mean, however, that outcome after surgery will necessarily be poor. To our knowledge, no study has been focused on the outcome in patients with NPH who show accepted markers of poor prognosis prior to surgery. In a recent paper, 24 members of our department studied the influence of several known prognostic factors in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NPH

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Ralf Ketter, Wolfram Henn, Isolde Niedermayer, Heike Steilen-Gimbel, Jochem König, Klaus D. Zang and Wolf-Ingo Steudel

T he current WHO classification of brain tumors 16 distinguishes three grades of meningiomas: the common type (WHO Grade I), the atypical or intermediate type (WHO Grade II), and the anaplastic meningioma (WHO Grade III). Because of many clinical, topographic, radiological, and surgical factors, histological findings are not solely decisive for prognosis of this disease, 13, 23, 42 although mitotic activity, cellular pleomorphism with prominent nucleoli and micronecrosis, and focally raised cell density have been posited as indicators of poorer prognosis