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Andrew H. Milby, Casey H. Halpern, Wensheng Guo, and Sherman C. Stein

number of CSIs, these benefits must be weighed against the associated risks and considerable costs of performing such studies and the additional treatments initiated due to false-positive results. 18 , 19 , 41 , 77 Indeed, complications have been reported in 6–71% of critically ill patients during and after transport. 94 Accurate knowledge of the prevalence of CSI in trauma patients is therefore essential for assessing the need for immobilization and/or further imaging. Scattered studies of CSI in clinical series composed of all trauma patients report CSI prevalences

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, Mohannad Ibrahim, and Cormac O. Maher

A lthough pineal cysts were once thought to be rare, they have been identified with increasing frequency since the advent of MR imaging. 4 , 13 , 28 Previous studies on the prevalence of pineal cysts have focused on adults and have reported prevalences ranging from 1.1 to 4.3%. 4 , 8 , 13 , 14 , 20 , 23 , 24 In the largest prior study on the MR imaging prevalence of pineal cysts, Sawamura et al. 23 found pineal cysts in 1.3% of 6023 patients undergoing brain MR imaging. They found no cysts in children younger than 10 years of age and concluded that the

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Andrew Y. Yew, Zackary E. Boomsaad, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, and Cormac O. Maher

T he prevalence and natural history of arachnoid cysts in children are not well defined. With the increased use of MR and CT imaging, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of incidentally diagnosed arachnoid cysts. 23 , 28 , 50 , 57 Prior studies focusing on adults estimate arachnoid cyst prevalence between 0.2 and 1.7%. 4 , 11 , 22 , 23 , 50 These estimates are based on smaller series of patients, almost all in the adult age range, and did not attempt to define prevalence by age. The long-term behavior of these cysts is also not well

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Samuel Terman, Craig Kilburg, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, and Cormac O. Maher

T he prevalence and natural history of arachnoid cysts in adults are not well defined. With the increasing use of MRI and CT, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of incidentally diagnosed arachnoid cysts. 49 , 50 , 90 , 93 , 106 Prior studies of smaller groups of adults with arachnoid cysts have estimated cyst prevalence as between 0.3% and 1.7%. 8 , 27 , 49 , 50 , 90 , 93 We recently studied a large population of children undergoing brain MRI and found that the prevalence of arachnoid cysts in children was 2.6%, slightly higher than

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Joongyub Lee, Seung-Ki Kim, Hee Gyung Kang, Il-Soo Ha, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Yeoun Lee, and Ji Hoon Phi

prevalence of hypertension in this disease population is not clear in the literature. The majority of studies on this subject have dealt with renovascular hypertension because it is known that 5%–10% of pediatric MMD patients develop renal artery stenosis (RAS), with subsequent hypertension. 38 In a study of pediatric MMD patients, RAS was found in 7.9% of patients and 5.9% developed renovascular hypertension. 1 Therefore, the relationship between MMD and hypertension has long been considered in the context of concomitant RAS. Defining hypertension in children and

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Brian P. Walcott, Brian V. Nahed, Kristopher T. Kahle, Navid Redjal, and Jean-Valery Coumans

S troke represents one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in the US. 6 An estimated 795,000 new strokes occur each year in the US, making it the third overall leading cause of death in America. 5 Surveillance data has been notoriously difficult to obtain due to sampling ability and reporting bias. In 2007 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and reported the first state-specific variability in stroke prevalence. 7 The prevalence estimates from the BRFSS are

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Thomas M. O'Lynnger, Aditya S. Pandey, Joseph J. Gemmete, B. Gregory Thompson, Karin M. Muraszko, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher

T he prevalence of CMs has been estimated to be between 0.4% and 0.8% in most prior reports; 16 , 29 , 48 , 55 , 56 however, very few children have been included in these prevalence estimates. Although CMs have been considered “congenital” lesions in the past, 2 , 31 , 38 the de novo formation of CMs is now frequently noted. 12 , 13 , 17 , 23 , 46 , 50 , 53 , 64 Therefore, the prevalence of CMs may increase during the pediatric age range. This age-related change in prevalence has never been defined. One goal in this study is to define the age

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Tao Yang, Kazumichi Yoshida, Takakuni Maki, Yasutaka Fushimi, Kiyofumi Yamada, Masakazu Okawa, Yu Yamamoto, Naoki Takayama, Keita Suzuki, and Susumu Miyamoto

CW-associated ischemic neurological events reportedly carry a high risk of recurrence. 8–11 Although CWs have increasingly been recognized and studied as a cause of recurrent stroke, the natural history and clinical course of CWs remain unclear. For instance, CWs are frequently reported in non-Asian populations, such as Afro-Caribbean and Caucasian populations, while detailed information (e.g., prevalence, imaging characteristics, clinical features) of CWs in Asian populations has rarely been reported. 2 , 3 , 5 , 12 , 13 In addition, compared with symptomatic CW

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Jian-Bin Chen, Yi Liu, Liang-Xue Zhou, Hong Sun, Min He, and Chao You

1 diabetes mellitus, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 2 , 13 , 16 , 24 Recently, the autoimmune disease prevalence in bilateral MMD was also reported in a midwestern US population. 2 However, the clinical characteristics of autoimmune disease in unilateral MMD have not been reported in the literature. Whether there are differences between the autoimmune associations that occur with unilateral and bilateral disease has not been investigated. We therefore sought to explore the clinical characteristics of autoimmune disease in unilateral and bilateral MMD to

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David Y. C. Chan, Jill M. Abrigo, Tom C. Y. Cheung, Deyond Y. W. Siu, Wai S. Poon, Anil T. Ahuja, and George K. C. Wong

offering screening or follow-up management. It could also have public health implications and guide future resource allocation and service development in Hong Kong. 19 Therefore, our aim in this study was to generate data on the local prevalence of UIAs in first-degree relatives of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms and to explore the potential role of screening for first-degree relatives in our locality. Methods The study was approved by the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong-New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee and