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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Waseem Wahood, Abdullah T. Eissa, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Brett A. Freedman, Benjamin D. Elder and Mohamad Bydon

keywords were used for the search: platelet rich plasma, artificial growth factors, lumbar fusion, and lumbar surgery. Selection Criteria Studies were included only if they 1) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies that compared outcomes between patients undergoing spinal fusion with the use of PRP and those without it, 2) recorded outcomes of interest, and 3) were written in the English language. Duplicate studies were only included if their patient populations were different. Data Extraction The following variables were abstracted from the

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Erhan Emel, Selma Sönmez Ergün, Dilcan Kotan, Esra Başar Gürsoy, Yeşim Parman, Asli Zengin and Asiye Nurten

been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush or freeze injury. 22 , 40 Platelets contain various growth factors, such as PDGF, TGF-β, PF4, VEFG, EGF, PDEGF, ECGF, and IGF. When platelets are activated, they release these factors, which play important biological roles in various conditions. These growth factors act locally to recruit undifferentiated cells to the site of injury, trigger mitosis in these cells, and induce angiogenesis. Application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides the nerve with a medium enriched with platelet

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Nobuyuki Ozaki and Sean Mullan

tension for 90 minutes. 34, 35 During that time, the fluid was replaced every 15 minutes. A low concentration of KCl (20 mM) was added to test the reactivity of the strips initially. Contractions were displayed on the ink-writing oscillograph. † The contractile activity of the following blood fractions was evaluated: 1) platelet-rich plasma (PRP); 2) platelet-poor plasma (PPP); 3) intact red cells (IRC); 4) lysed red cells (LRC); and 5) serum. Blood was taken from the femoral artery of the dog via a polyethylene catheter and placed in siliconized tubes containing

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Tsutomu Harada and Marc R. Mayberg

(10 mg in 30 µl saline) was saturated with excess ferric ion (ferric chloride 4 mg) for 30 minutes before being mixed with blood and applied to the artery. In an additional five control animals (Group F), erythrocyte-free autologous platelet-rich plasma was prepared as described previously 17 and applied to the femoral adventitia. TABLE 1 Summary of experimental groups Group Treatment Total Deferoxamine Applied A deferoxamine 1 mg/ml in 0.1 ml whole blood 0.1 mg B deferoxamine 5 mg/ml in 0.1 ml whole blood 0

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Joshua D. Bell, Theresa Currier Thomas, Elliot Lass, Jinglu Ai, Hoyee Wan, Jonathan Lifshitz, Andrew J. Baker and R. Loch Macdonald

. Methods All procedures described herein were approved by the Animal Care Committee at St. Michael's Hospital and complied with regulations of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Assay of Glutamate Release in Thrombin-Activated Platelet-Rich Plasma Thrombin was diluted in 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, made with Millipore ultra-filtered water; pH 6.5) to a concentration of 0.5 U of thrombin per 50 μl. Aliquots of diluted thrombin were stored in plastic Eppendorf tubes at −20°C until defrosted on ice for use. Preliminary tests indicated that 1.5 U of thrombin

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John W. Peterson, Lawrence Roussos, Byung-Duk Kwun, John D. Hackett, Christopher J. Owen and Nicholas T. Zervas

angiography, and data analysis were performed exactly as described elsewhere. 28 Preparation of Subarachnoid Injectates Plasma and Platelet-Rich Plasma Cell-free plasma was prepared from Ca ++ -chelated whole blood (with approximately 4.5 mM ethyleneglycol-bis ( β -aminoethylether)-N, N′-tetra-acetic acid, or EGTA), as described earlier. 28 Clotting was activated by reconstitution of free Ca ++ to between 0.70 and 1.0 mM and the addition of trace amounts (0.002 to 0.10 U/ml) of lyophilized bovine thrombin. Plasma was sometimes used as the subarachnoid injection

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Kunihiko Osaka

plasma, platelet-poor plasma, intact erythrocytes, lysed erythrocytes, and serum. These blood fractions were prepared by the following method. Anesthetized adult cats were bled via a short polyethylene catheter placed in the femoral artery into silicon tubes containing heparin. The tubes were immediately cooled in ice. The heparinized whole blood contained 100 units of heparin for each 10 ml of blood. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 105 G for 15 minutes in a refrigerated centrifuge. As with the platelet-poor plasma, the heparinized

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Marc R. Mayberg, Tomohisa Okada and Don H. Bark

structural changes in the vessel wall consistent with those observed in cerebral vasospasm after SAH. 18 In the current experiment, whole blood was fractionated into four constituent components: washed erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC's), leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC's) contained in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), Hb-containing erythrocyte cytosol, and erythrocyte membranes. A model similar to that employed for whole blood was used to apply selectively each fractionated blood component or commercially available porcine Hb to the MCA adventitia in pigs for 10 days to

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Sotirios A. Tsementzis, Jaswinder S. Gill, Edward R. Hitchcock, Jennifer A. Hartley, Surinder K. Gill and D. Gareth Beevers

at 1888 G for 10 minutes, and platelet-rich plasma by centrifugation of the blood at 472 G for 10 minutes. The platelet counts of the platelet-rich plasma were adjusted to between 8000 and 12,000 by adding autologous platelet-poor plasma. A Payton dual-channel aggregometer coupled to a Servoscribe recorder was used for the aggregometry study. * Platelet-rich plasma, 0.5 ml, was added to a cuvette with a stirring bar and placed in the machine. The specimen was maintained at 37°C and stirred at 800 rpm. Light transmission was adjusted to 0% for platelet-rich

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Ossama Al-Mefty, Gary Marano, Srinivasan Rajaraman, G. Robert Nugent and Nathaniel Rodman

also aggregated virtually completely upon the addition of low concentration of ADP (0.2 µM and 0.1 µM, respectively) and epinephrine (0.01 µM). The aggregation response to collagen was different from that of a normal control only in that there was a shorter lag time between the addition of collagen and the beginning of aggregation in the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seen in patients as compared with normal PRP. In comparison with normal resting platelets, there were no significant ultrastructural differences in resting platelets demonstrated in patients by transmission