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Robert E. Decker

I n cases of intrasellar and suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, the pituitary gland has been reported to be compressed against the bone structure of the sella turcica or the diaphragma sellae, depending on the location of the mass. Frequently the gland is markedly thinned and distorted by the constant pressure of the tumor. 2 This is consistent with our experience with 43 craniopharyngiomas, 37 approached by craniotomy and six by transsphenoidal surgery. Over the past 4 years, we have found two cases of fully formed ectopic pituitary glands during craniotomy

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Andras A. Kemeny, Jan A. Jakubowski, Anthony A. Jefferson and Emil Pasztor

product reaching its destination is proportional not only to secretion but also to local blood flow. Measurement of pituitary blood flow by the commonly used diffusible indicator, rubidium-86, or radiolabeled microsphere technique is unreliable because of the special angiostructure in this gland, 10 and does not allow for dynamic studies. In our present study, the hydrogen clearance method 1 was used, with a direct approach to the pituitary gland, 7, 13, 14 to establish the limits of autoregulation in the adenohypophysis of rats. Materials and Methods Twenty

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Luigi Mariani, Benoit Schaller, Joachim Weis, Christoph Ozdoba and Rolf W. Seiler

pituitary gland was found. The results of whole-body FDG-PET scanning were normal. Given the intracranial location of the lesion and because the pituitary gland does not seem to have lymphatic drainage, we assumed there was a very low risk of locoregional spreading of the disease. We therefore decided to take a “watchful waiting” attitude, keeping radiotherapy as an option in case of a potential recurrence. Conclusions Tumors with the same histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of olfactory neuroblastoma can arise in the pituitary gland and might

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Charles Taylon and Thomas A. Duff

A ll previous descriptions of giant cell granuloma of the pituitary gland have been made on autopsy material. Sheehan and Summers 3 reported on 18 cases of giant cell granuloma of the pituitary gland, including four cases previously described by Simmonds. 4 Their group included examples where the lesion was clearly associated with systemic granulomatous disease, but most of these cases represented instances of an apparently isolated process. Two additional instances, with a listing of the pathological criteria for diagnosis, were described by Doniach and

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Nicholas T. Zervas, Akira Shintani and Kenneth S. Pickren

major lobes of the hypophysis, in the forward surface of the pars nervosa. Coronal serial histological sections were obtained every 25 µ ( Fig. 2 ). Examination of these preparations revealed in each case the presence of the electrode track in the adenohypophysis and an electrolytic lesion on the surface of the pars nervosa. Fig. 1. Impedance values in the hypophysis of the monkey ( macaca mulatta ). Fig. 2. Photomicrograph of sagittal serial section of the monkey pituitary gland. Left: Note the electrolytic lesion ( arrow ) in the forward surface

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Gilberto Ka Kit Leung, Wing Sun Chow, Kathryn Choon Beng Tan, Yiu Wah Fan and Karen Siu Ling Lam

A lthough malignant melanoma is known to have a high propensity to metastasize to the brain, 1, 16 involvement of the pituitary gland is distinctly rare. 4, 6, 7, 10 Metastatic melanoma of the brain frequently involves multiple lesions, 11 and pituitary metastasis from any source not associated with widespread systemic dissemination is uncommon. 12 We report an unusual case of pituitary metastatic melanoma in which the patient presented with pituitary dysfunction as the only sign of tumor recurrence after 5 years of clinical remission of the primary

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Yoshimasa Mori, Tatsuya Kobayashi and Yuta Shibamoto

Skull base metastasis from other locations occurs in 4% of patients with cancer, 12 and metastases to the pituitary gland (sella turcica) and cavernous sinus occasionally occur. 1,12 Metastases of this nature are problematic because they are adjacent to the eloquent structures such as cranial nerves, including the optic pathways and nerves for extraocular movement and facial sensation. Stereotactic radiosurgery has been reported to be safe and effective for metastases in various sites of brain parenchyma, providing the tumors are not large. 7,8 Radiosurgery

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Alexandra M. Giantini Larsen, David J. Cote, Hasan A. Zaidi, Wenya Linda Bi, Paul J. Schmitt, J. Bryan Iorgulescu, Michael B. Miller, Timothy R. Smith, M. Beatriz Lopes, John A. Jane Jr. and Edward R. Laws Jr.

S pindle cell oncocytomas (SCOs) are non-neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pituitary gland. Spindle cell oncocytoma was first included in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in 2007 after the tumor was described in 2002. 12 , 18 , 29 Roncaroli et al. defined SCO as spindled in appearance, with eosinophilic cytoplasm and numerous swollen mitochondria, immunoreactivity for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), galectin-3, and S100, no expression of pituitary hormones, and a benign histopathology due to

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Ivan Ciric

E mbryological studies show that the pituitary gland is surrounded during its development by a mesodermal layer. 1 Anatomists and radiologists have since shown that the arachnoid membrane can be found below the diaphragma sellae, its recesses enveloping in some cases the entire pituitary gland. 5 , 6 , 8 While most neurological surgeons have confirmed the presence of arachnoid recesses below the diaphragma sellae, some have also recognized and described a separate pituitary capsule. 2 , 3 , 7 , 9–11 , 14 Only a few neurological surgeons experienced in

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Toussaint A. Leclercq and Francois Grisoli

L uschka 5 first described the inferior hypophyseal artery (IHA) and the superior hypophyseal artery (SHA) in 1860. Since that time, considerable literature has accumulated on the subject, much of it prompted by the description in the 1930's by Popa and Fielding 9, 10 of a portal system between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. The arterial blood supply of the pituitary gland, with the roles of the IHA and SHA and the interlobar anastomotic circle, were carefully described by McConnell 6 and by Xuereb and his co-workers. 1, 13, 14 These articles