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Tyler S. Cole, Kaith K. Almefty, Jakub Godzik, Amy H. Muma, Randall J. Hlubek, Eduardo Martinez-del-Campo, Nicholas Theodore, U. Kumar Kakarla and Jay D. Turner

neurological disease were excluded. All aspects of this study protocol were approved by the local institutional review board prior to patient enrollment. Informed consent for study enrollment was obtained from all patients. Study participation had no bearing on surgical decision-making. Functional Hand Testing All patients were tested by a licensed occupational therapist who performed 3 tests to assess hand function. These tests included palmar dynamometry to measure grip strength, the hydraulic pinch gauge test to measure pinch strength, and the 9-hole peg test (9-HPT) to

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Yun Dong, Langston T. Holly, Richard Albistegui-Dubois, Xiaohong Yan, Jonathan Marehbian, Jennifer M. Newton and Bruce H. Dobkin

conductivity and relearning of skilled hand movements evolved. Activity-triggered muscle fatigability, weakness of wrist extensors and intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired finger coordination are common motor deficits of the distal upper extremity in patients with symptomatic CSM. Prior to decompressive spinal surgery, we used fMR imaging during both wrist extension and 3-finger pinch to investigate cortical sensorimotor reorganization associated with clinical deterioration of hand function in patients with symptomatic CSM. We assessed subsequent cortical adaptations in

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Chao-Hung Kuo, Timothy M. Blakely, Jeremiah D. Wander, Devapratim Sarma, Jing Wu, Kaitlyn Casimo, Kurt E. Weaver and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

the index finger, and 1 over the interphalangeal space were selected to record thumb, index, and pinch movements ( Fig. 1D ). Presentation of the visual stimuli and recording of the glove and µECoG signals were accomplished simultaneously using the BCI2000 software suite. The µECoG grid was placed initially over an area estimated from intraoperative navigation and anatomical MRI as likely to be the hand area of the sensorimotor cortex. All electrodes were recorded for 5 seconds as the baseline. The patient was then visually cued to open and close the hand. For an

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James W. Leiphart, Cynthia V. Dills and Robert M. Levy

the cold floor during a 20-minute period. In the paw-pinch testing paradigm, rats withdrew their paws from a pinching stimulus as a correlate measure of their hyperalgesia in response to pressure. Increasing pressure was gradually applied to the dorsal side of the affected hind paw by using a graded motor-driven device (Ugo Basile, Milan, Italy). The pressure (in grams) at which limb withdrawal occurred was recorded. Four measurements were obtained at 3-minute intervals so that each paw was tested every 6 minutes. Rats with CCI that exhibited a higher sensitivity

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Susan E. Mackinnon, Brandon Roque and Thomas H. Tung

function and a pinch/grip strength of 6/20 lbs on the right and 11/42 lbs on the left. Multiple treatment options and their risks and benefits were reviewed. The patient was concerned about the morbidity of nerve grafting, the likelihood of poor recovery given the time since injury, and the numerous scars required for tendon transfers as well as nerve graft harvest. She was informed that although a median to radial nerve transfer was a new option, 11 , 12 it was the best chance for her wrist and finger extensors to be reinnervated in a timely fashion. It was decided to

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Uroš Kovačič, Fajko Bajrović and Janez Sketelj

communication with an uninjured sural nerve was surgically created. The maximal nociceptive innervation area of the uninjured sural nerve was evaluated using the skin pinch test after 24 hours. Estimation of Recovery of Skin Sensitivity to Pain The nociceptive skin pinch test 7, 11 was used to estimate the extent of recovery of pain sensitivity in the hind foot skin. The animals were lightly anesthetized by a 25-mg/kg dose of intraperitoneal pentobarbital (Vetanarcol). The skin of the instep was pinched with a fine forceps (diameter of the tip 0.2 mm) in 1-mm intervals from

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G. Robert Nugent, Ossama Al-Mefty and Sam Chou

of intraventricular production? In discussing this matter, McMillan and Williams 11, 21 raised the possibility that aqueductal stenosis may actually be the result of the hydrocephalus; recently, Borit 2 has reviewed this concept as it has been observed in animals, and postulates that it also may occur in man. We believe that in some cases of advanced hydrocephalus the lateral ventricles may depress the third ventricle and compress the midbrain, thus pinching shut the aqueduct, which adds an obstructive component to a communicating hydrocephalus. The aqueductal

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Youichi Saitoh, Takuyu Taki, Norio Arita, Takanori Ohnishi and Toru Hayakawa

proopiomelanocortin gene-transfected Neuro2A, 16 which are both mouse cell lines that secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin, were encapsulated and transplanted into the CSF space of rats. The rats were expected to exhibit analgesic effects because the secreted β-endorphin from encapsulated cells binds opiate receptors in the spinal cord. 26 Three measures (tail-pinch test, hot-plate test, and electrical stimulation) were used to evaluate possible analgesic effects associated with the β-endorphin—secreting cells. This experiment is the first in which

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Jayme Augusto Bertelli and Marcos Flávio Ghizoni

strength was measured using a push-and-pull dynamometer (Baseline). To measure wrist extension strength, the wrist joint was positioned at the edge of a table, allowing for free wrist flexion and extension. In the neutral position, a push-and-pull dynamometer (Baseline) was applied to the dorsal aspect of the hand while the patient actively extended his or her wrist. Grasp strength was measured using a Jamar dynamometer (Baseline). During the assessment, the patient's wrist was stabilized by the examiner's hand. Key pinch strength was measured using another dynamometer

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Erhan Emel, Selma Sönmez Ergün, Dilcan Kotan, Esra Başar Gürsoy, Yeşim Parman, Asli Zengin and Asiye Nurten

the operation (SFI-1), and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively (SFI-2, -3, -4). Sensory Function Recovery of sensory function was analyzed using the pinch test. The lateral side of the rat's paw was pinched using the same aneurysm clip. Animals showing a withdrawal response to pinching were noted. Pinch tests were performed 1 day before the operation (SF-0) and on the day following the operation (SF-1) and were repeated at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks postoperatively (SF-2, SF-3, SF-4, SF-5, SF-6, SF-7). Histological Evaluation Distal parts of the