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Elizabeth A. M. Frost

physiopathology of the respiratory system in relation to the management of the neurosurgical patient before, during, and after operation. Regulation of Respiration Receptors Peripheral Chemoreceptors Receptors located in the carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries and in the aortic bodies in the ascending arch of the aorta and its branches detect decreases in arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ) over a range of 200 to 30 torr, and immediately increase minute ventilation. 3 A rapid rise in respiratory rate is seen below 50 torr. Chemoreceptor

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Head injury in the chimpanzee

Part 1: Biodynamics of traumatic unconsciousness

Ayub K. Ommaya, Paul Corrao and Frank S. Letcher

developing a testable hypothesis to guide further work, we have reviewed our experiments in three species of subhuman primates subjected to direct and indirect impacts in whom correlations of the biodynamic data and physiopathology have been completed. On the basis of data from these sources and our present study, we would like to propose the following hypothesis for the mechanism of cerebral concussion (traumatic unconsciousness) in man. Hypothesis for Cerebral Concussion Loss of consciousness caused by mechanical trauma cannot be regarded as a simple matter of

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Nivaldo Silva Jr., Anne Christine Januel, Philippe Tall and Christophe Cognard

plexuses. They may cause elevated medullary venous pressure and produce a progressive myelopathy. 11 We present four cases of spinal epidural AVFs causing progressive myelopathy and we compare the physiopathology, angioarchitecture, and therapeutic strategy with those of spinal dural AVFs. Case Reports Case 1 This 60-year-old woman with a history of T-12 fracture and T11–L1 laminectomy presented with symptoms of progressive myelopathy that had lasted 1 year. Spinal MR imaging showed a hyperintensity and swelling of the conus medullaris with abnormal, slightly

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Victor Goulenko, Paulo Luiz da Costa Cruz and Paulo Niemeyer Filho

. reported that the Vim did not influence the hyperkinetic movements. 22 The variety of etiologies, the physiopathology, the topography of the brain insult, and the different ways that a compensatory motor network is formed explains the heterogeneity of outcomes and different programming settings. A good evaluation of each patient will influence which target is chosen. Stimulating a single nucleus might not completely control all of the symptoms, necessitating an additional target. The GPi would influence the phasic component, affecting the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuit

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James W. Markham

✓ The unusual complication of sudden ipsilateral loss of vision following alcohol block of the infraorbital nerve for tic douloureux is described and the possible physiopathology discussed. The author believes that spasm of the central retinal artery was the cause and that repeated injections may have been a predisposing factor. Review of other cases reported shows that the loss of vision has been attributed to embolization of injected agents via collateral blood vessels.

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Simona Mihaela Florea, Thomas Graillon, Thomas Cuny, Regis Gras, Thierry Brue and Henry Dufour

complication, occurring at a rate of 0%–2%, with a transient appearance in most cases. 1–3 , 5 , 6 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 18 , 25 , 27 , 29 , 34–38 Several years ago our team switched from microscopic transsphenoidal surgery to the endoscopic technique. We have observed that postoperative oculomotor palsy was more frequent with the endoscopic than with the microscopic approach. The goals of this study were to analyze the occurrence of oculomotor nerve complications for both surgical techniques based on our practical experience, and understand its physiopathology and outcome

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Marc N. Gallay, David Moser and Daniel Jeanmonod

technique should then provide increased safety and accuracy to achieve the best clinical results. The incisionless transcranial MRgFUS technology demonstrates indeed a higher targeting accuracy and a lower side-effect profile than techniques involving cerebral penetration. In the absence of penetration brain shift, this technique avoids the placement of a thermolesion away from the chosen target, thus eliminating the need for reversible therapeutic energy application. Together with the use of proper physiopathology-based targets, definitive therapeutic effects can be

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Marc N. Gallay, David Moser and Daniel Jeanmonod

technique should then provide increased safety and accuracy to achieve the best clinical results. The incisionless transcranial MRgFUS technology demonstrates indeed a higher targeting accuracy and a lower side-effect profile than techniques involving cerebral penetration. In the absence of penetration brain shift, this technique avoids the placement of a thermolesion away from the chosen target, thus eliminating the need for reversible therapeutic energy application. Together with the use of proper physiopathology-based targets, definitive therapeutic effects can be

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growing adenomas, the maximum radiation dose must not be above 4000 cGy. I have not seen any patients with optic radiation damage since I started to refer my patients only to radiotherapy centers that agree to follow these directions. Reference 1. Landolt AM : Hazards of radiotherapy in patients with pituitary adenomas , in Derome PJ , Jedynak CP , Peillon F (eds): Pituitary Adenomas. Biology, Physiopathology and Treatment. Proceedings of the Second European Workshop on Pituitary Adenomas, Paris 1979. Paris