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Kelsey Hayward, Sabrina H. Han, Alexander Simko, Hector E. James, and Philipp R. Aldana

health systems outpatient telemedicine program has a positive impact on patient travel time, travel costs, and environmental pollutants. 9 In a previous publication, our group documented the establishment of a pediatric neurosurgery telemedicine clinic (PNTMC) in terms of the development, structuring, and quality improvement of patient care. 14 In the current report, we address the socioeconomic benefits to the patients of the PNTMC. Methods The PNTMC is one of the telehealth services provided through the Georgia Children’s Medical Services (CMS) clinic located in

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Ricky R. Kalra and John R. W. Kestle

measures in determinations of promotions and tenure. 2 More recently, subspecialties within medicine have started to adopt the h index as a measure of productivity and have demonstrated its correlation with rank. 3 , 9 Some evidence suggests that the h index varies from one scientific field to another 5 as a result of the number of investigators and the overall citation rate. We were therefore interested in studying the h index within pediatric neurosurgery. Our goal was to compare the h index and the g index with the rank of faculty in academic pediatric

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Rahul Kumar, David S Hersh, Luke G. F Smith, William E Gordon, Nickalus R Khan, Andrew J Gienapp, Busra Gungor, Michael J Herr, Brandy N Vaughn, L. Madison Michael II, and Paul Klimo Jr.

cranial, spinal, critical care, and other (e.g., peripheral nerve, radiosurgery, peripheral device management). Pediatrics has long been viewed as a core subspecialty within neurosurgical training. Residents will commonly rotate for a defined period on a pediatric neurosurgical service. Some programs, however, do not have enough pediatric cases and therefore need to outsource this rotation to other host programs. Using publicly available aggregate data from the ACGME, West et al. found pediatric neurosurgery to be the only subspecialty that demonstrated a decline in

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Subash Lohani and Alan R. Cohen

myelomeningocele. By 1926, Cushing had operated on more than 150 brain tumors in children. In 1929, he recognized the need for a dedicated specialty of pediatric neurosurgery. He asked his disciple, Franc D. Ingraham, to begin a pediatric neurosurgery service at BCH ( Fig. 1 ). 36 Such was the origin of the first neurosurgical unit in the world dedicated to the care of children. F ig . 1. Franc D. Ingraham. Pediatric neurosurgery was largely an unexplored specialty at the time. It was the era when the roentgenogram was the best available imaging modality, hemostasis

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Roberta Rehder, Subash Lohani, and Alan R. Cohen

D onald Darrow Matson (1913–1969), whose life was cut short in its prime by catastrophic illness, made seminal contributions to the field of pediatric neurosurgery and is considered one of its founding fathers ( Fig. 1 ). 3 Matson was a remarkable man and a skillful neurosurgeon, yet he has not received the recognition he deserves for his pioneering work in pediatric neurosurgery. Here we discuss his extraordinary career and his role in introducing the modern era of neurosurgery in general, and pediatric neurosurgery in particular. Based on a review of

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Matheus Fernando Manzolli Ballestero, Luciano Furlanetti, and Ricardo Santos de Oliveira

lower-middle-income countries, wherein there exists the greatest burden of pediatric neurosurgical disease, there is a known insufficiency of human and technological resources. 6 The practice of pediatric neurosurgery differs from that of adults in that it treats children in various stages of physical and psychological development and contemplates diseases that do not exist in other areas. In the face of the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery (SBNPed) recommends that all elective, nonessential surgeries should

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Silky Chotai, Bradley S. Guidry, Emily W. Chan, Katherine D. Sborov, Stephen Gannon, Chevis Shannon, Christopher M. Bonfield, John C. Wellons III, and Robert P. Naftel

applied to patients undergoing complex neurosurgical procedures. Studies on readmission and reoperation associated with pediatric neurosurgical diagnoses are sparse. 11 , 23 , 31 , 35 , 46 In a single-center retrospective study of 1358 patients undergoing pediatric neurosurgery, Wrubel et al. 46 reported 10.89% (n = 148) unexpected readmissions, and 8.02% (n = 109) related readmissions. Those authors found that in children with shunt-related surgery and shorter LOS, these variables were associated with related readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Chern et al. 11

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Anil K. Roy, Jason Chu, Caroline Bozeman, Samir Sarda, Michael Sawvel, and Joshua J. Chern

monitor placement, 40 cases of halo vest placement, 20 cases of halo vest removal, 35 cases of lumbar drain placement, 27 cases of lumbar puncture, and 13 aborted cases, among other procedures. Reoperations Within 48 Hours of Index Surgery The rate of early reoperations for each category is reported in Table 3 . There were 221 reoperations (2.78%) within 48 hours of the conclusion of the index surgery. Three physicians (senior neurosurgical resident, pediatric neurosurgery fellow, and a board-certified pediatric attending) adjudicated on whether the reoperation was

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Paul Klimo Jr. and John R. W. Kestle

outcome measure when an appropriate one is not available. To assist clinical investigators in pediatric neurosurgery, we also describe a number of outcome measures that may be useful to them. Outcome Measures An outcome measure refers to any tool used to evaluate the effect of a disease and/or treatment on the health status of a patient. Traditionally, surgeons have been interested in outcomes that represent pathological, physiological, or clinical variables, such as death, pain, tumor growth, or bone fusion. As the science of outcome measurement has evolved, two

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Joshua Nguyen, and Sandi K. Lam

Mayfield Triad skull clamp, which has clamping force indicators and allows adjustment of the force of all 3 pins. Any of the Mayfield clamps accommodate simultaneous use of a horseshoe headrest and skull pins to support the weight of the head and allow for reduction of the torque screw load, while maintaining immobilization. TABLE 1. Comparison of pinning techniques in pediatric neurosurgery Pinning Technique Roles Pros Cons 3-Point fixation  Mayfield skull clamp Microsurgical resection 2-pinned arm may rotate for flexible positioning Increased force on single-pinned arm