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Elsa V. Arocho-Quinones, Sean M. Lew, Michael H. Handler, Zulma Tovar-Spinoza, Matthew Smyth, Robert Bollo, David Donahue, M. Scott Perry, Michael L. Levy, David Gonda, Francesco T. Mangano, Phillip B. Storm, Angela V. Price, Daniel E. Couture, Chima Oluigbo, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Gene H. Barnett, Carrie R. Muh, Michael D. Sather, Aria Fallah, Anthony C. Wang, Sanjiv Bhatia, Kadam Patel, Sergey Tarima, Sarah Graber, Sean Huckins, Daniel M. Hafez, Kavelin Rumalla, Laurie Bailey, Sabrina Shandley, Ashton Roach, Erin Alexander, Wendy Jenkins, Deki Tsering, George Price, Antonio Meola, Wendi Evanoff, Eric M. Thompson, Nicholas Brandmeir and the Pediatric Stereotactic Laser Ablation Workgroup

–17 years) treated with the Visualase thermal laser system. 14 In that series, tumor histologies included pilocytic astrocytomas, ependymoma, recurrent medulloblastoma, choroid plexus xanthogranuloma, subependymal cell giant astrocytoma, and ganglioma; volumetric analysis revealed progressive cytoreductive tumor effect on follow-up evaluations (mean follow-up time 24.5 months, range 12–35 months), and transient neurological deficits were seen in 2 of the 11 patients. While that series was focused only on pediatric brain tumors, it still suffered from having a small

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Claudia M. C. Faria, James T. Rutka, Christian Smith and Paul Kongkham

modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms, which function to regulate normal cellular processes such as genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, patterning by Hox genes, and developmental and tissue-specific gene expression. 69 Epigenetic “tags” on genomic DNA are established early during development and differentiation. The dysregulation of these mechanisms may cause altered gene expression, contributing to the origin of human diseases including cancer. 30 Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in children and represent the leading cause of

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Samuel Cheshier, Michael D. Taylor, Olivier Ayrault and Sabine Mueller

P ediatric patients with primary brain tumors present some of the most challenging cases encountered by neurosurgeons. Brain tumors are the second most common neoplasms in children and the most common solid neoplasms. Furthermore, brain tumors have overtaken leukemia as the leading cause of childhood cancer death. 1 Surgical and adjuvant therapies result in reasonably good survival rates in many pediatric brain tumor types. For instance, standard treatment (maximal safe resection, craniospinal irradiation, and myeloablative chemotherapy) results in long

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Markus Bookland, Eileen Gillan, Xianyuan Song and Antonina Kolmakova

, conclusions about whether changes in serum miRNA represent changes in the tumor biology or changes in the host biology cannot be drawn with any certainty. Without this understanding, neurosurgeons and neurooncologists cannot be certain that aberrations in serum miRNA expression levels truly represent the presence of oncological tissues, and they cannot discern whether miRNA changes during therapy are the result of treatment impact on the tumor or the patient. In short, understanding the derivation of serum miRNA changes in pediatric brain tumor patients does not preclude

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Pediatric brain tumors: management strategies Mark D. Krieger 6 2005 18 6 1 2 10.3171/foc.2005.18.6.1 FOC.2005.18.6.1 Cranial base strategies for resection of craniopharyngioma in children James K. Liu Chad D. Cole John R. W. Kestle Douglas L. Brockmeyer Marion L. Walker 6 2005 18 6 1 9 10.3171/foc.2005.18.6.10 FOC.2005.18.6.10 Subfrontal transbasal approach and technique for resection of craniopharyngioma Henry E. Aryan Burak M. Ozgur Rahul Jandial Michael L. Levy 6 2005 18 6 1 4 10.3171/foc.2005.18.6.11 FOC.2005.18.6.11 A novel brainstem tumor model

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Zulma Tovar-Spinoza and Hoon Choi

tumor destruction 41 and provides advantages such as decreased discomfort, reduced overall morbidity, and fewer complications compared with conventional surgical techniques. 20 We previously described the MRgLITT technology and its use in children. 6 , 25 , 34 Here, we report the preliminary results of the first series of heterogeneous pediatric brain tumors treated with MRgLITT at Golisano Children's Hospital in Syracuse, New York. Methods Study Design Approval from the SUNY Upstate Medical University Institutional Review Board was obtained to

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Aliasgar V. Moiyadi and Prakash Shetty

S urgery is an important constituent of the overall treatment of pediatric brain tumors. Extent of resection is a crucial predictor of outcomes, especially in certain tumors like medulloblastomas, 12 and this is reflected in the fact that repeat surgery for residual tumor, as well as the concept of second-look surgery, has gained popularity in recent years. 4 , 12 Generally, neurosurgeons are circumspect about repeat surgeries. Loss of anatomical landmarks, violated surgical planes, and adhesions pose significant challenges to safe dissection and often

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Courtney Pendleton, Edward S. Ahn and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa

W illiam Macewen is credited with the first publication on the successful resection of a pediatric brain tumor in 1879. 10–12 Although literature from the time describes surgical treatment for brain tumors in general, little was written about surgical approaches in pediatric patients. Without the benefit of neuroimaging, surgeons in the late 19th and early 20th centuries relied solely on history and physical examination for the diagnosis and localization of brain tumors. Within a pediatric population, this reliance on physical examination for diagnosis

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Aria Fallah, Alexander G. Weil, Samir Sur, Ian Miller, Prasanna Jayakar, Glenn Morrison, Sanjiv Bhatia and John Ragheb

, observational cohort study to describe the efficacy of epilepsy surgery in pediatric patients with brain tumors. The population of interest consisted of consecutive children with medically intractable epilepsy (defined as ongoing seizures after treatment with at least 2 antiepileptic drugs [AEDs] and beginning a third AED at the time of epilepsy surgery referral and workup) related to a pediatric brain tumor who underwent a resection primarily for epilepsy and, in certain cases, for an oncological indication at Miami Children’s Hospital from June 1986 to June 2014

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Curtis A. Dickman, Harold L. Rekate, C. Roger Bird, Burton P. Drayer and Marjorie Medina

, and a second series of T 1 -weighted images within 20 minutes following injection of contrast material. Laboratory studies (including electrolyte studies, complete blood count, urinalysis, renal and liver function, and serum iron determination) as well as physical examinations were performed prior to MR imaging and at regular intervals thereafter. The patients' radiographic studies and case histories were evaluated by the Pediatric Brain Tumor Board of our institution, which is a multidisciplinary team composed of pediatric and radiation oncologists, pediatric