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The Lucite Calvarium—A Method for Direct Observation of the Brain

I. The Surgical and Lucite Processing Techniques

C. Hunter Shelden, Robert H. Pudenz, Joseph S. Restarski and Winchell McK. Craig

of intracranial pain and the local and general effects of increased intracranial pressure. Many of his findings were apparently lost with the passage of time, and upon being rediscovered, have been accepted as modern contributions. The window most extensively used in modern neurophysiological procedures is undoubtedly the one described by Forbes 3 in 1928. At this time he reported the first of a series of acute experiments in which the diameters of the pial vessels were measured under various conditions. Forbes' window is constructed of a circular piece of glass

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Joseph A. Mufson and Leo M. Davidoff

liver. At the time of discharge, he showed marked improvement. Interval Note . During the next two years, the patient was completely asymptomatic. He returned to work and was able to conduct his business as well as formerly. In June, 1942, however, there was a recurrence of the same personality deficits noted prior to his first admission. He began to complain of pain about the right eye and cheek and noticed that his left arm was weaker than formerly. Third Admission . July 9, 1942. Examination at this time revealed the patient to be quite dull mentally. He was

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James C. White and Robert W. Gentry

there they run over posterior roots into the spinal cord. This technique has been used in the last 20 patients out of a total series of 76. The results have been satisfactory in 85 per cent of these patients, followed from one to twenty-seven months; 14 of them have had complete relief from their distressing attacks, and 3 have had their former intractable pain so reduced that it could be satisfactorily handled with routine medical methods. There were 2 failures, and 1 patient died of a painless coronary occlusion shortly after the injection. The two failures were due

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Claude C. Coleman

the muscle, the neuroma is a hard resistant one and there is complete sensory and motor loss in the domain of the nerve, the nerve should be regarded as incapable of spontaneous recovery. Division of peripheral nerves is rarely followed by pain due to the nerve lesion. Patients with severe partial lesions, however, often develop intractable pain. This condition was described in the studies of patients in the War between the States by Mitchell, Morehouse and Keen and is called causalgia. Patients with this pain may sweat profusely in the field supplied by the

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R. Glen Spurling

lines. NERVE IRRITATION—TRAUMATIC NEUROMAS Many incomplete nerve injuries are associated with causalgic-like pain and may be relieved by dissection of the extrinsic scar or the removal of foreign bodies. Neurolysis in such cases is usually followed by slow progressive improvement of symptoms, and if the nerve must be replaced into a bed of scar tissue, a protective cuff of tantalum foil is used. Minor causalgias from nerve irritation should not be confused with other types of causalgia and phantom limb. These major cases form quite a different problem

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Burton M. Shinners and Wallace B. Hamby

S ince 1934, when Mixter and Barr 6 elaborated the clinical syndrome of protruded intervertebral discs, low back pain and sciatica, the advances in all phases of the problem have been phenomenal. Varying opinions have been expressed as to the results obtained by treatment and these have ranged in tone from unduly optimistic to needlessly pessimistic. Claim adjustors of at least one insurance company are known to discourage compensation patients disabled by this lesion from seeking surgical relief. In reporting the first 40 cases operated upon for this

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Andrew J. Akelaitis

Praxis was studied in detail. 6 Auditory gnosis included the study of sound localization, the recognition of familiar sounds and the appreciation of music. 4 Tactile gnosia included detailed study of the sensory system (tactile, pain, temperature, position, vibration, localization, deep pressure, two-point discrimination, weight discrimination, appreciation of shape, size, texture and consistency) and stereognosis. Temporal-spatial gnosis was studied. 4 Language functions were studied unilaterally and included the receptive aspects, such as visual and tactile lexia

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Colonel C. G. de Gutiérrez-Mahoney

, Leriche 7 98 per cent and Foerster 2 100 per cent. Riddoch 14 noted that pain was referred to the phantom in half of all amputated limbs, but Foerster claimed that pain was experienced in every instance. In our patients it has been almost literally true, as Foerster observed, that pain was felt in every phantom, but it was disabling in very few. The sensations occur much more frequently in the hand than in the foot. They may appear immediately or, more frequently, not until two or three weeks after the operation, although occasionally as long as a year or more may

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Intracranial Dural Cyst

With Report of a Case

Webb Haymaker and Miles E. Foster Jr.

occurred every two or three years. Over a period of a week or two they would reach a crescendo and then would disappear. During the bouts of headache there was usually a blurring of vision in the right eye but sometimes it was bilateral. Occasionally there was also pain in that eye. Family History . Nothing of significance was elicited. Physical Examination . The patient, of excellent physique, presented the picture of intense pain. He thrashed about the bed, pulled his hair and cried out. The temperature was 98.6°F., the pulse 84, the respirations 18, the blood

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J. Grafton Love

T he syndrome of protruded intervertebral disk has been well established and the high degree of accuracy with which the diagnosis is made, not only by the neurologist and the orthopedist but also by the general practitioner of medicine, speaks well for the high type of medicine and surgery that is being practiced in this country today. In the majority of cases of protruded intervertebral disk, the diagnosis can be accurately made on the basis of the history and physical findings. Many patients, however, present themselves with histories of intractable pain