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Subtorcular occipital encephaloceles

Anatomical considerations relevant to operative management

Paul H. Chapman, Brooke Swearingen and Verne S. Caviness

O ccipital encephalocele occurs at an estimated rate of one every 3000 to 10,000 live births. The disorder is part of a spectrum of congenital dysraphic syndromes which includes other types of encephaloceles as well as myelodysplasia. 21, 32 It represents roughly 8% to 15% of this group of malformations. Most encephaloceles (66% to 89%) occur in the occipital area. The term “occipital encephalocele” refers to a variety of anatomical configurations. The cyst may contain cerebellum, brain stem, occipital lobes, vascular structures, or only cerebrospinal fluid

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Sergio Cavalheiro, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Jardel Mendonça Nicácio, Patricia Alessandra Dastoli, Italo Capraro Suriano, Mauricio Mendes Barbosa, Hérbene Jose Milani, Stéphanno Gomes Pereira Sarmento, Tereza Cristina Carbonari de Faria and Antonio Fernandes Moron

in the United States, 2004–2006 . Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol . 2010 ; 88 ( 12 ): 1008 – 1016 . 5 Kasprian GJ , Paldino MJ , Mehollin-Ray AR , Prenatal imaging of occipital encephaloceles . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2015 ; 37 ( 3 ): 241 – 248 . 6 Lo BW , Kulkarni AV , Rutka JT , Clinical predictors of developmental outcome in patients with cephaloceles . J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2008 ; 2 ( 4 ): 254 – 257 . 7 Mahapatra AK . Giant encephalocele: a study of 14 patients . Pediatr Neurosurg . 2011 ; 47 ( 6 ): 406 – 411 . 8 Kiymaz N

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Ronald H. M. A. Bartels, Johannes L. Merx and Jacobus J. van Overbeeke

E ncephaloceles are protrusions of meninges and/or brain through a congenital defect of the skull and are encountered in every 3000 to 10,000 live births. 4, 6 The most common type is the occipital encephalocele. 7 Many studies address the pathogenesis of this disorder. However, the development and anatomy of the venous dural sinuses in occipital or occipitoparietal encephaloceles is rather poorly understood. Therefore, we examined magnetic resonance (MR) venography studies obtained in recent cases to gain a better understanding of this defect. Clinical

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Majid Dadmehr, Farideh Nejat, Mostafa El Khashab, Saeed Ansari, Nima Baradaran, Abolhasan Ertiaei and Farzad Bateni

, multivariate comparison adjustment was needed. Therefore, a probability value of < 0.05 cannot be considered statistically significant for univariate analysis. Results In this study, all encephaloceles were located only in the occipital region, and 64.5% of those with encephaloceles were female. A summary of demographic characteristics in the 62 children is presented in Table 1 . TABLE 1: Summary of demographic characteristics in patients with occipital encephaloceles and controls * Variable No. (%) p Value Controls Cases no

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Robert A. Fenstermaker, Uros Roessmann and Harold L. Rekate

T he prognosis for children with occipital encephaloceles is generally poor. The incidence of intellectual and physical disability, as well as death, is higher than 75%. Some have suggested lower figures, and have confirmed the role that hydrocephalus and brain within the sac contribute to the overall poor prognosis. 10, 11 This article describes a group of four patients, three of whom were brought to University Hospitals of Cleveland between 1963 and 1977. All were seen for low-occipital mass lesions initially believed to represent simple occipital

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Cuong J. Bui, R. Shane Tubbs, Chevis N. Shannon, Leslie Acakpo-Satchivi, John C. Wellons III, Jeffrey P. Blount and W. Jerry Oakes

C ranial vault encephaloceles are relatively rare but challenging congenital neural tube defects presenting in the neonatal period with herniation of neural elements through a congenital skull defect. Historically, these entities have carried a poor prognosis, particularly the posterior/occipital encephaloceles. 5 For example, in reports from more than 20 years ago, Lorber and Schofield 6 found a 57% mortality rate for occipital encephaloceles, and Tsuchida et al. 9 observed a 41% rate of mortality within 2 years. However, improved preoperative imaging

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Shigeru Nemoto and Harold J. Hoffman

✓ A patient with a posttraumatic leptomeningeal cyst is described. The cyst simulated an occipital encephalocele and communicated with an epidural cerebrospinal fluid collection in the posterior fossa.

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Anna J. Janss, Steven L. Galetta, Andrew Freese, Eric C. Raps, Mark T. Curtis, Robert I. Grossman, John M. Gomori and Ann C. Duhaime

tissue along the entire neuraxis. Microscopic examination reveals fine granules of hemosiderin in macrophages, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. Varying degrees of atrophy are seen in the cerebellum with folial shearing, loss of Purkinje cells, and Bergmann gliosis. The first, second, third, and eighth cranial nerves exhibit dense accumulation of hemosiderin with demyelination and atrophy. Hemosiderin-laden astrocytes are also found intrapa-renchymally around the cochlear nucleus. 7, 14 We report the case of a 32-year-old woman born with an occipital encephalocele

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Carlos H. A. Carvalho, Marcus André Acioly, Bernd Will and Marcos Tatagiba

Meningoencephaloceles are rare clinical entities occurring in the occipital region in almost 70% of cases. 2 These entities comprise complex intracranial anomalies usually associated with several other brain malformations. 4 Among these anomalies, an abnormal venous system is frequently associated with occipital encephaloceles. 4 This 2-day-old girl was admitted to our department after suffering from a closed complex occipital meningoencephalocele. Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a complex meningoen-cephalocele containing prolapsed

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John Mealey Jr., Andrievs J. Dzenitis and Arthur A. Hockey

the prognosis of occipital encephaloceles in a series of infants. There is no comparison of the long-term outlook with this condition before and after ventriculoatrial shunt operations were widely adopted for controlling the hydrocephalus associated with many encephaloceles. This report analyzes the morbidity of encephaloceles and the results of treatment over a 20-year span through 1967 at the Indiana University Medical Center. The study interval includes the decade immediately before and that just after the first ventriculoatrial shunting operations were done at