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Jeffrey S. Henn, G. Michael Lemole Jr., Mauro A. T. Ferreira, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Mark Schornak, Mark C. Preul, and Robert F. Spetzler

T he process of learning neurosurgery is difficult due to both the inherent complexity of the subject and the limitations of standard educational methods. The ultimate success of a neurosurgical approach is contingent on a mastery of complex, 3D anatomy. Although the intricacy of the anatomy is a given, new computer-based educational methods can improve understanding of this anatomy and hasten the process of learning. The time-proven standard for neurosurgical education is a combination of textbooks, cadaver dissection, and intraoperative training. These

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Roberto C. Heros

M ost of my predecessors on this podium have begun their presidential address with an acknowledgment of special people and events that have shaped and helped their life and their career; I will reverse the order and leave those for the end. I will first apologize for making this more of a chat between friends and colleagues rather than a formal address with appropriate references and literary quotations. The topic of my chat will be neurosurgical education, mostly related to education of our residents. Much of what I plan to say will sound like “motherhood and

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Nasser M. F. El-Ghandour

subjects that should be well known. Obviously, the practice of neurosurgery in modern Egypt has shown rapid progression in the last 50 years. It is a successful model that can be replicated, adapted, and adopted in low- and middle-income countries. This article will briefly present the training programs available in Egypt, the current situation of this specialty in the African continent, the challenges African neurosurgeons are facing, and the requirements needed to enhance neurosurgical education in Africa and build up the required neurosurgical capacity in the Sub

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Grace M. Thiong’o, Thomas Looi, James T. Rutka, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, and James M. Drake

’ knowledge, there is no record of a cerebral hemispheric surgery simulator prior to the invention described in this paper, due partly to a redundancy of materials available to simulate the nuances of hemispheric disconnection. 24 , 25 In an attempt to fill the gap in epilepsy surgery simulation training, our paper describes the design workflow of a novel, hands-on cerebral hemispheric surgical simulator and its validation as a useful tool for neurosurgical education through face, content, and construct validity studies. Methods The research and methodologies

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Theodore Kurze

F ocusing upon a historical review of developments in neurosurgical education could provide a cozy but laborious retreat. I have elected to ignore the numerous aphorisms which illuminate the value of history, and would like to mention certain aspects of change which may have a bearing on the purposes of this workshop. Change appears to be the substrate of our universe and not an occasional flux in stable systems. However, thoughtful men in most epochs seldom cease to be amazed by the rapidity of change in their own times. Our era appears to be no exception

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Robert F. Mager

procedures through which fail-safe instruction may be designed, and implemented. It is no longer necessary to instruct in the hope that the student will develop the competence your wisdom says he should develop; it is well within the state of the art to assure competence in every qualified student. If you wonder whether neurosurgical education might benefit from the use of these procedures, you might consider the answers to questions like these: —Instruction is only one of several remedies for eliminating a performance discrepancy (difference between what a student is

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Zoe E. Teton, Rachel S. Freedman, Samuel B. Tomlinson, Joseph R. Linzey, Alvin Onyewuenyi, Anadjeet S. Khahera, Benjamin K. Hendricks, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

collections of operative videos, webinars, interactive atlases, and 3D models, now play a central role in the modern era of neurosurgical education for learners all across the globe. 25 Since its internet launch in 2016, The Neurosurgical Atlas by Aaron Cohen-Gadol, MD, has established itself as a leading international resource for neurosurgical education and particularly for microneurosurgical techniques. 24 The site currently features more than 480 text chapters (“volumes”), 9000 illustrations, 1100 educational videos, and 150 “grand-round” webinars presented by

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Matthew A. Kirkman, Maria Ahmed, Angelique F. Albert, Mark H. Wilson, Dipankar Nandi, and Nick Sevdalis

a high-precision specialty where technical error can result in devastating patient outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, the application of simulation within neurosurgical education and training has yet to be systematically reviewed and the state of the art in simulation within this specialty is currently unknown. This paper reports the results of the first systematic review aimed to assess the application of simulation within neurosurgical training. Methods Data Sources and Search Strategy We prespecified the methods used in this systematic review and

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Carolina Martins, Eduardo Carvalhal Ribas, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., and Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas

the method and the advances of digital technology will soon make up for these shortcomings. On the other hand, expenses with film and film developing as well as the difficulties faced nowadays in finding parts and replacements for traditional slides projectors make this method a viable substitute for a technology that has faded. Conclusions Three-dimensional digital projection as explained in this paper presents several advantages over traditional methods of 3D projection. It is a suitable method for neurosurgical education. Author Contributions

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Philipp R. Aldana and Paul Steinbok

P ediatricians play a vital role in the diagnosis, initial workup, and long-term treatment of children with neurosurgical diseases. Despite this, the opportunities to learn about the medical treatment of a pediatric neurosurgical patient during pediatrics residency training are limited and variable. There are no provisions for formal neurosurgical education, such as neurosurgical clinical rotations or teaching sessions, in the pediatrics residency training curriculum. 1 Outside of residency training, other avenues for neurosurgical education for the