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Jeffrey S. Henn, G. Michael Lemole Jr., Mauro A. T. Ferreira, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Mark Schornak, Mark C. Preul and Robert F. Spetzler

T he process of learning neurosurgery is difficult due to both the inherent complexity of the subject and the limitations of standard educational methods. The ultimate success of a neurosurgical approach is contingent on a mastery of complex, 3D anatomy. Although the intricacy of the anatomy is a given, new computer-based educational methods can improve understanding of this anatomy and hasten the process of learning. The time-proven standard for neurosurgical education is a combination of textbooks, cadaver dissection, and intraoperative training. These

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Roberto C. Heros

M ost of my predecessors on this podium have begun their presidential address with an acknowledgment of special people and events that have shaped and helped their life and their career; I will reverse the order and leave those for the end. I will first apologize for making this more of a chat between friends and colleagues rather than a formal address with appropriate references and literary quotations. The topic of my chat will be neurosurgical education, mostly related to education of our residents. Much of what I plan to say will sound like “motherhood and

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Theodore Kurze

F ocusing upon a historical review of developments in neurosurgical education could provide a cozy but laborious retreat. I have elected to ignore the numerous aphorisms which illuminate the value of history, and would like to mention certain aspects of change which may have a bearing on the purposes of this workshop. Change appears to be the substrate of our universe and not an occasional flux in stable systems. However, thoughtful men in most epochs seldom cease to be amazed by the rapidity of change in their own times. Our era appears to be no exception

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Robert F. Mager

procedures through which fail-safe instruction may be designed, and implemented. It is no longer necessary to instruct in the hope that the student will develop the competence your wisdom says he should develop; it is well within the state of the art to assure competence in every qualified student. If you wonder whether neurosurgical education might benefit from the use of these procedures, you might consider the answers to questions like these: —Instruction is only one of several remedies for eliminating a performance discrepancy (difference between what a student is

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Matthew A. Kirkman, Maria Ahmed, Angelique F. Albert, Mark H. Wilson, Dipankar Nandi and Nick Sevdalis

a high-precision specialty where technical error can result in devastating patient outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, the application of simulation within neurosurgical education and training has yet to be systematically reviewed and the state of the art in simulation within this specialty is currently unknown. This paper reports the results of the first systematic review aimed to assess the application of simulation within neurosurgical training. Methods Data Sources and Search Strategy We prespecified the methods used in this systematic review and

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Carolina Martins, Eduardo Carvalhal Ribas, Albert L. Rhoton Jr. and Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas

the method and the advances of digital technology will soon make up for these shortcomings. On the other hand, expenses with film and film developing as well as the difficulties faced nowadays in finding parts and replacements for traditional slides projectors make this method a viable substitute for a technology that has faded. Conclusions Three-dimensional digital projection as explained in this paper presents several advantages over traditional methods of 3D projection. It is a suitable method for neurosurgical education. Author Contributions

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Philipp R. Aldana and Paul Steinbok

P ediatricians play a vital role in the diagnosis, initial workup, and long-term treatment of children with neurosurgical diseases. Despite this, the opportunities to learn about the medical treatment of a pediatric neurosurgical patient during pediatrics residency training are limited and variable. There are no provisions for formal neurosurgical education, such as neurosurgical clinical rotations or teaching sessions, in the pediatrics residency training curriculum. 1 Outside of residency training, other avenues for neurosurgical education for the

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Daniel K. Resnick

manifest as the new generation of primary care providers emerges and manages patients with “neurosurgical” disorders without the benefit of a “neurosurgicaleducation. Appendix 1: Neurosurgical Chairman or Program Director Survey 1) On average, how many faculty man-hours are devoted to medical student education in settings other than the clinical service (i.e. required lectures, anatomy lab, faculty mentorships, etc.)? 2) Is there a required neurosurgical course for medical students at your institution? 3) Is there a neurosurgical component of a required neuroscience or

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Assessment, accomplishments, and anxieties

The 1976 AANS presidential address

Richard L. DeSaussure Jr.

already a corporation with this in mind; however, this is in its early stages. Few of you who remember the Cushing Oration by Dr. Braun in 1973 2 will ever forget the impact that television programs beamed to rural communities had on the life style of those communities in India. Fig. 3. Medical education by satellite. Assistance for Foreign Neurosurgical Education This brings me to the second topic that I would like to discuss very briefly and this is the opportunity that I believe exists in regard to overseas neurosurgery. Many neurosurgeons are now