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Wesley Hsu, Khan W. Li, Markus Bookland and George I. Jallo

T he field of neuroendoscopy accompanies virtually the entirety of modern neurosurgical history, although its impact on neurosurgery has only recently begun to match the magnitude of its past. During the 1910s and 1920s, neuroendoscopy was one of many technological advances in the field of neurosurgery. Harvey Cushing introduced the first vascular clip, 19 Dandy 10 performed the first pneumoventriculography, and Weed and McKibben 28 described the use of hypertonic solutions to reduce intracranial pressure. It is easy to imagine how amid all of these

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Meharpal Sangra, Simon Clark, Caroline Hayhurst and Conor Mallucci

A dvances in neuroendoscopy have led to an increase in its range of uses in the treatment of a variety of neurosurgical conditions. 7 This is especially true in pediatric neurosurgery where its role in the treatment of conditions such as obstructive and multiloculated hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, and tumor biopsy have become established. In an attempt to reduce morbidity associated with these procedures and improve outcome, endoscopy is now being used with image-guided neuronavigation. 9 , 22 , 27 The options available have included frame-based as

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Khan W. Li, Clarke Nelson, Ian Suk and George I. Jallo

Neuroendoscopy began with a desire to visualize the ventricles and deeper structures of the brain. Unfortunately, the technology available to early neuroendoscopists was not sufficient in most cases for these purposes. The unique perspective that neuroendoscopy offered was not fully realized until key technological advances made reliable and accurate visualization of the brain and ventricles possible. After this technology was incorporated into the device, neuro-endoscopic procedures were rediscovered by neurosurgeons. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and other related procedures are now commonly used to treat a wide array of neurosurgically managed conditions. A seemingly limitless number of neurosurgical applications await the endoscope. In the future, endoscopy is expected to become routine in modern neurosurgical practice and training.

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Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Cody B. Wolfe, Joyce Koueik, Bradley E. Weprin, Bermans J. Iskandar and Angela V. Price

pellucidum was fenestrated to allow visualization of the contralateral ventricle and interventricular foramen, both of which appeared normal. The skin was closed over the burr hole site. A head CT scan obtained on postoperative day 1 showed interval decrease of the size of the right ventricle with near resolution of the calcifications along the tract ( Fig. 3C ). The patient had no postoperative complications and had stable imaging findings 3 years postoperatively ( Fig. 3D ). Discussion Neuroendoscopy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in the treatment of a host of

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Kay Niklas Liebig, Homajoun Maslehaty, Athanasios K. Petridis, Wolfgang Konen and Martin Scholz

D ue to technological progress, neuroendoscopy has become an important tool in our therapeutic armamentarium, and the field of application has broadened. 2 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 19 , 24 , 25 , 27 , 29 Although neuroendoscopy enables illumination and inspection in different areas of interest without traumatizing brain structures, the field of view is restricted. In the present study we intended to improve this restricted field by developing a model to obtain a panoramic view of the lateral ventricle and to increase orientation and safety during neuroendoscopic

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Rodolfo Casimiro Reis, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Marilia Wellichan Mancini, Luciana Almeida-Lopes, Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira and Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto

V entricular neuroendoscopy represents an important advance in the treatment of hydrocephalus. About 30% of patients with hydrocephalus meet the criteria for this technique, which may prevent the need for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, resulting in reduced costs and low incidence of late complications. 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 12 , 15 , 17 Nonetheless, because a ventricular endoscope is used through a single bur hole, additional resources to enable cutting, coagulation, and ablation of injuries are extremely relevant to reduce surgical time and hospital length of

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Juergen Grauvogel, Christian Scheiwe, Waseem Masalha, Tanja Grauvogel, Jan Kaminsky and Ioannis Vasilikos

postoperative care and maintenance; this procedure therefore does not limit patients in their future activities, which might be of particular importance in younger and pediatric populations. 30 In the CWD procedure, the posterior semicircular canal is removed, resulting in improved visualization of the disease and the affected middle ear anatomy. 30 This technical note describes an alternative method for removal of a recurrent petrous apex cholesteatoma in a 14-year-old girl via a retrosigmoid approach using the techniques of piezoelectric surgery, neuroendoscopy, and

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Dimitrios Paraskevopoulos, Naresh Biyani, Shlomi Constantini and Liana Beni-Adani

T he use of endoscopy in the treatment of intracranial cystic lesions has become widely accepted. Obstructive types of hydrocephalus, such as aqueductal stenosis and obstruction of the foramen of Monro, multicystic hydrocephalus, and intracranial cysts, are some of the common indications for endoscopic treatment. 2 , 4 , 13 , 17 In children with multiloculated hydrocephalus (most commonly in post–intraventricular hemorrhagic hydrocephalus or postinfectious hydrocephalus), multiple shunt procedures combined with neuroendoscopy may be required to establish

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Joachim Oertel, Joachim Kurt Krauss and Michael Robert Gaab

obstructive hydrocephalus due to intraventricular hemorrhage. Occlusion of the third ventricle by the hematoma is shown. b: Endoscopic view at the foramen of Monro filled with intraventricular hematoma. c: Hematoma aspiration with the ultrasonic aspirator handpiece. d: View of the floor of the third ventricle. e: Ventriculostomy enlargement with a balloon catheter. f: Results after endoscopic third ventriculostomy at the floor of the third ventricle. Conclusions Neuroendoscopy has become an established, well-accepted treatment strategy for various pathological

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Joseph C. T. Chen, Michael L. Levy, Ziv Corber and Murwarid Mura Assifi

Applications of endoscopic technique neurosurgery are becoming increasingly popular as greater evidence of the safety and efficacy of these techniques is reported. Nevertheless, significant technical limitations need to be solved before neuroendoscopy can achieve widespread popularity. One limitation is the surgeon's difficulties in becoming anatomically oriented in a two-dimensional (2-D) environment. The lack of appropriate visual cues to orient oneself in three-dimensional (3-D) space makes relatively simple anatomical regions difficult to navigate. The authors describe an endoscopy system that allows for stereoscopic visualization during minimally invasive procedures and that acts as an adjunct to conventional open craniotomies. Four cases are described in which stereoendoscopy was used as either a primary means of visualization or as an adjunct to the operating microscope in conventional open neurosurgical procedures. The authors believe that stereoendoscopic vision is a significant advance in endoscope technology and will play a large role in the popularization of minimally invasive techniques in neurosurgery.