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Jai Deep Thakur, Ashish Sonig, Prashant Chittiboina, Imad Saeed Khan, Rishi Wadhwa and Anil Nanda

I n the modern microneurosurgical era, cadaveric dissection holds an important position for aspiring and practicing neurosurgeons, not only to improve the understanding of the surgical anatomy but also as a tool of advancing neurosurgical operative techniques. Professors Yaşargil 25 and Rhoton 15 led the evolution in the understanding of the surgical neuroanatomy in the late 20th century. Although the use of selective colored cerebrovascular injections in cadaver dissections has recently become a routine practice to enhance the cerebral vasculature, it

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Paola Frati, Alessandro Frati, Maurizio Salvati, Silvia Marinozzi, Riccardo Frati, Luciana Rita Angeletti, Manolo Piccirilli, Eugenio Gaudio and Roberto Delfini

neuroanatomy, as summarized in Table 2 and represented in Figs. 1 to 3 . 6 , 27 , 32 , 34 , 39 , 42–44 , 46 TABLE 2 Main contributions of Italian scientists to neuroanatomy Place & Year Name & Scientific Publication/Achievement Main Contribution Bologna, 1316 Mondino dè Luzzi, first authorized dissection on a human cadaver established an accurate technique to dissect the cadaver; considered one of the fathers of modern anatomy Florence, 1490 Leonardo da Vinci, drawings of the human body provided us w/ an important

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Marios Loukas, Misha Shea, Cory Shea, Martine Lutter-Hoppenheim, Paula Zand, R. Shane Tubbs and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

A ll neurosurgeons are familiar with the eponymous use of the name Trolard in describing the anastomotic vein (superior anastomotic vein) on the lateral surface of the cerebral cortex that unites the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial sylvian vein. However, the many other contributions of the man for which this vein is named are largely unknown to the medical community. Trolard was a pivotal figure not only because of his multiple contributions to the field of neuroanatomy, but also because of his involvement in environmental and public health

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R. Shane Tubbs, Payman Vahedi, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M. Shoja and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

tumor. 11 Contributions to Neuroanatomy Most known in neurosurgery is the foramen of Luschka or lateral aperture of the fourth ventricle ( Fig. 3 ). In 1855, in his Die Adergeflechte des menschlichen Gehirns (The Choroid Plexus of the Brain) 6 he confirmed that the foramen of Magendie existed and then described a lateral outlet of the fourth ventricle. 13 He stated On either side, the outer angles of the fourth ventricle assume the form of a gutter leading outside, whereby the latter portion of the choroid plexus passes outside of the fourth ventricle

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Clemens M. Schirmer, Jay L. Shils, Jeffrey E. Arle, G. Rees Cosgrove, Peter K. Dempsey, Edward Tarlov, Stephan Kim, Christopher J. Martin, Carl Feltz, Marina Moul and Subu Magge

sample size might be challenging to perform. Conclusions We present the largest data set of direct intraoperative nerve root stimulations during decompressive surgery to demonstrate the relative contribution of root-level motor input to various muscle groups. Compared with the classic neuroanatomy, a significant number of roots innervate a broader range of muscles than expected, which may account for the variability of presentation between patients with identical number and location of compressed roots. Clinicians should consider this variability when evaluating

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Jose Weber Vieira de Faria, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Leonardo de Moura Sousa Júnior, Jose Pinhata Otoch and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

nonlinear format provides interactivity. However, most medical educators are not familiar with these methods. Studies published between 2000 and 2006 applied this technology, often coupled with robotic microscopes. 5 , 6 , 18 , 20 , 54 Nonetheless, their pedagogic efficacy remains controversial. In this study, the authors used an interactive, photorealistic, and stereoscopic method for teaching neuroanatomy, a concept whose rationale was first described by Henn and coworkers. 20 Additionally, a pedagogic evaluation was performed to demonstrate the educational benefits

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Issam A. Awad

anatomist on neurological concepts. 14, 18, 22 In fact, Galen's concepts on spinal and peripheral neuroanatomy would remain essentially unaltered until the 18th century, when Francois Pourfour du Petit demonstrated by dissection and by experiment on animals that the sympathetic trunks do not arise from the fifth and sixth cranial nerves as stated by Galen, followed by the much later work by Bell and by Magendie in the 19th century, which further advanced concepts about the functions of the ventral and dorsal spinal roots that were not clearly delineated by Galen. 6

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James T. Rutka

I have always maintained that of all the neurosciences we must master to care best for our patients, the most important one for us, as neurosurgeons, is neuroanatomy. Neuroanatomy is the cornerstone on which we build our understanding of the structure and function of the human brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. I vividly recall spending countless hours of my neurosurgical residency reading neuroanatomical textbooks, skull in hand, learning the nuances of approaches to the brain. I yearned for neuroanatomy texts that had practical neurosurgical

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R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Ghaffar Shokouhi and W. Jerry Oakes

✓François Magendie lived during a tumultuous period in French history. Although this early medical pioneer made significant contributions to the fields of neuroanatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, little information is found in the non-French literature regarding this significant person in history. Based on this review, one could also consider this trained surgeon as an early pioneer of neurosurgery. For example, he is known to have used Galvanic current to treat various neuralgias, described a technique for extracting cerebrospinal fluid and quantitated and described its characteristics in normal and pathological specimens, and elucidated the functions of the the cranial nerves using vivisection. Additionally, he accurately described the functions of the dorsal and ventral rootlets using vivisection, and realized that the exposed meninges were susceptible to painful stimuli. Our current knowledge is based on the early contributions of scientists such as François Magendie.