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Tamara Denning, Yoky Matsuoka and Tadayoshi Kohno

A 2007 WHO report indicated that neurological disorders—such as injury, spina bifida, stroke, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease—affect up to 1 billion people worldwide. 21 Unlike traditional approaches that stress accommodation of the needs of the neurologically affected via drug interventions or intrusive and costly home or hospital care, neural engineering combines cutting-edge technologies to develop a proactive role in understanding more about how the nervous system works, in order to provide rapid, complete

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Pratik Rohatgi, Nicholas B. Langhals, Daryl R. Kipke and Parag G. Patil

], and supported by the National Institutes of Health). They also thank the Student Biomedical Research Program (which provided specific support to Mr. Rohatgi), funded through the University of Michigan Medical School. Acknowledgments The authors thank Dr. Kip Ludwig for project planning and manuscript editing assistance, and Denzel Davis, Matthew Gibson, and the other members of the Neural Engineering Laboratory of the University of Michigan for their assistance with this study. Portions of this work were presented in poster form at the 2008 Fall Student

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Joseph J. Pancrazio

. A key feature of these programs is that each allows the pursuit of milestone-oriented, rather than hypothesis-driven, aims—goals consistent with engineering design and development activities. Current bioengineering program announcements support neural engineering activities including BMI research: Exploratory Bioengineering Research Grants (R21, PA-06–418): 2-year, high-risk, high-return, early-stage bioengineering projects; Bioengineering Research Grants (R01, PA-07–279): 4-to 5-year projects intended to support continuing studies in bioengineering; and

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Jeffrey A. Herron, Margaret C. Thompson, Timothy Brown, Howard J. Chizeck, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Andrew L. Ko

help to pave the way for more bidirectional neural prosthetics work in the future to aid in the treatment of ET and other movement disorders. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Award No. EEC-1028725 from the National Science Foundation for the Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Science Foundation. This research was also supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate

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Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L. Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

different changes to interhemispheric connectivity. 6 Acknowledgments This work was supported by NSF grant EEC-1028725 for the Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering. Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper. Author Contributions Conception and design: Ojemann. Acquisition of data: Poliachik, Novotny, Poliakov, Ojemann. Analysis and interpretation of data: Casimo, Grassia, Poliachik. Drafting the article: Casimo. Critically revising the article: all authors

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Mårten E. Brelén, Patrick De Potter, Michel Gersdorff, Guy Cosnard, Claude Veraart and Jean Delbeke

visual sensations elicited in normal sighted and retinitis pigmentosa volunteers. . Pflugers Arch 447 : R3 , 2004 . (Abstract) 2 Brindley GS , Lewin WS : The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex . J Physiol 196 : 479 – 493 , 1968 3 Cavuoto J : Neural engineering’s image problem . IEEE Spectrum 41 : 32 – 37 , 2004 4 Chow AY , Chow VY , Packo KH , Pollack JS , Peyman GA , Schuchard R : The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa . Arch

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Elizabeth A. Felton, J. Adam Wilson, Justin C. Williams and P. Charles Garell

for a direct brain interface: opportunities for improved detection accuracy . First International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering Capri Island, Italy 2003 . 587 – 590 4 Kennedy PR , Bakay RA : Restoration of neural output from a paralyzed patient by a direct brain connection . Neuroreport 9 : 1707 – 1711 , 1998 5 Kennedy PR , Bakay RA , Moore MM , Adams K , Goldwaithe J : Direct control of a computer from the human central nervous system . IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng 8 : 198 – 202 , 2000 6 Leuthardt EC , Schalk G

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Ashesh Shah, Jérôme Coste, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Erik Schkommodau, Ethan Taub, Raphael Guzman, Philippe Derost and Simone Hemm

Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) Neural Engineering Conference, Montpellier, France, April 22, 2015; Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Societies of Neuroradiology and Neurosurgery, Lucerne, Switzerland, September 10, 2015; 18th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden, June 8, 2014; 20th Congress of the European Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Lisbon, Portugal, September 26, 2012; and 46th Annual Conference of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering, Jena, Germany, September 16, 2012

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Casey H. Halpern, John A. Wolf, Tracy L. Bale, Albert J. Stunkard, Shabbar F. Danish, Murray Grossman, Jurg L. Jaggi, M. Sean Grady and Gordon H. Baltuch

Christou NV , Look D , Maclean LD : Weight gain after shortand long-limb gastric bypass in patients followed for longer than 10 years . Ann Surg 244 : 734 – 740 , 2006 21 Covalin A , Feshali A , Judy J : Deep brain stimulation for obesity control: analyzing stimulation parameters to modulate energy expenditure . Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE EMBS, Conference on Neural Engineering Arlington, VA , IEEE EMBS , 2005 . v – viii 22 Cox JE , Powley TL : Intragastric pair feeding fails to prevent VMH obesity or hyperinsulinemia

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Pantaleo Romanelli, Marco Piangerelli, David Ratel, Christophe Gaude, Thomas Costecalde, Cosimo Puttilli, Mauro Picciafuoco, Alim Benabid and Napoleon Torres

12 Cook MJ , O’Brien TJ , Berkovic SF , Murphy M , Morokoff A , Fabinyi G , : Prediction of seizure likelihood with a long-term, implanted seizure advisory system in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: a first-in-man study . Lancet Neurol 12 : 563 – 571 , 2013 13 Costecalde T , Bonnet S , Foerster M , Moro C , Torres-Martinez N : Preliminary results of long term stability of ECoG recordings in non human primates for BCI applications, presented at the 7th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering , 2015