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S. Scott Lollis, Pablo A. Valdes, Zhongze Li, Perry A. Ball, and David W. Roberts

S tudies of mortality are an important tool in the identification of occupational hazards. Previous studies of mortality in physicians have found increased death from brain tumors and suicide in pathologists; 17 leukemia, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and skin cancer in radiologists; 32 and suicide, accidental death, and drug-related death in anesthesiologists. 1 In the case of radiologists, the recognition of increased cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation led to institution of fundamental radiation safety practices

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Ronald Hammers, Susan Anzalone, James Sinacore, and Thomas C. Origitano

M ortality rate is a common outcome metric referenced by patients, families, physicians, insurers, and health care policy makers to evaluate the quality of health care. The mortality index is heavily used to measure survival, and is a key indicator in hospital report cards and national rankings. It is calculated by “observed mortalities/expected mortalities.” The significance of understanding mortality rates and indices is belied by the literature, which fails to detail mortality rates accurately within the overall neurosurgical population or to examine

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Kai-Ming G. Fu, Justin S. Smith, David W. Polly Jr., Christopher P. Ames, Sigurd H. Berven, Joseph H. Perra, Steven D. Glassman, Richard E. McCarthy, D. Raymond Knapp Jr., Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee

of risks for morbidity and mortality, many surgeons turn to the literature. However, regarding spinal procedures performed in children, few studies have reported specifically on the perioperative morbidity and mortality, and the studies that are available suffer from multiple limitations, including small numbers of patients, focus on a single procedure or complication, outdated surgical techniques, and confinement to single-surgeon or single-institution experiences. To date, there has been no specific analysis of complications associated with spinal surgery in

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Ethan A. Winkler, John K. Yue, Harjus Birk, Caitlin K. Robinson, Geoffrey T. Manley, Sanjay S. Dhall, and Phiroz E. Tarapore

, 43 alterations in vertebral biomechanics, 11 , 21 and more frequent falls. 38 In individuals ≥ 70 years, the annual fracture incidence exceeds 100 per 100,000 and increases exponentially with each decade thereafter. 23 , 42 When trended over time, the incidence of these fractures in the elderly is increasing at a rate that outstrips that which is predicted solely by the aging of the population. 25 , 42 Despite its high incidence and prevalence in the elderly population, little is known about the morbidity, mortality, and complications associated with various

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Austin R. T. Colohan, Wayne M. Alves, Cynthia R. Gross, James C. Torner, V. S. Mehta, P. N. Tandon, and John A. Jane

Delhi and 822 patients in Charlottesville who met these entrance criteria. Factors analyzed included patient's age, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score (GCS M) on admission, pupillary response to light, presence of associated injuries, systolic blood pressure on admission, surgical procedures, adjunctive medical therapy, lesion type, and mortality. Since it has been previously shown that the risk of mortality can be accurately predicted after head injury by the patient's GCS M ( Fig. 1 ), this parameter was used to compare the centers as to the

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R. Webster Crowley, Hian K. Yeoh, George J. Stukenborg, Adina A. Ionescu, Neal F. Kassell, and Aaron S. Dumont

treatment for this patient population critical. 21 This is something that must be done expeditiously and effectively irrespective of when the patient presents to medical attention. Unfortunately, the idea that patients receive the same quality of care regardless of when they are admitted to the hospital has been called into question. Several studies over the past decade have shown that certain diagnoses have significantly higher mortality rates if those patients are admitted during the weekends, 7 , 11 , 13 , 23 a finding that has been termed the “weekend effect.” 11

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Linda M. Gerber, Ya-Lin Chiu, Nancy Carney, Roger Härtl, and Jamshid Ghajar

T raumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a lethal injury with mortality rates as high as 50%. 5 , 8 , 12 , 18 In the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain TBI annually, resulting in over 50,000 deaths and 500,000 individuals with permanent neurological sequelae. 24 , 26 Approximately 85% of mortality from TBI occurs within the first 2 weeks, reflecting the early effect of systemic hypotension and intracranial hypertension (ICH). 22 Prospective databases have played an important role in understanding the natural history, definition

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Martin J. Rutkowski, Michael E. Sughrue, Ari J. Kane, Derick Aranda, Steven A. Mills, Igor J. Barani, and Andrew T. Parsa

the WHO has accordingly classified it as a unique CNS tumor since 1993. 86 Datasets for HPC remain limited, due in part to difficulties in its diagnosis and relatively recent reclassification as a unique disease, leaving important unanswered questions regarding prognosis. Hemangiopericytoma is notable for its local aggressiveness, high rate of recurrence, and propensity to metastasize to numerous extracranial locations. This combination of factors yields a far higher mortality rate than that for most types of meningiomas, and the mean survival in patients has

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K. Stuart Lee, Courtland H. Davis Jr., and Joe M. McWhorter

T he goal of carotid endarterectomy is to reduce the risk of future stroke, and for this goal to be valid the risk of stroke or death related to the procedure itself must be low. However, the stroke and mortality rates of previously reported series have varied widely over the years; 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11–13, 15, 16, 19–21, 23–26, 31, 35, 37, 40, 41, 43–45, 51, 52, 54–56, 58 a stroke rate as high as 15% 13 and a mortality rate as high as 7% have been reported. 13 A recent extensive review of the literature documented a mean perioperative stroke rate of 3.5% and

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Yu-Hua Huang, Tao-Chen Lee, Tsung-Han Lee, Chen-Chieh Liao, Jason Sheehan, and Aij-Lie Kwan

T raumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and neurological disability worldwide, and therefore it is an important societal issue. Despite numerous advances in our knowledge of TBI and improvements in prehospital resuscitation, diagnostic technology, and intensive care, large cohort studies show that the mortality rate is still about 30% during the first 6 months after severe TBI. 3 , 15 Malignant brain swelling, with or without any type of intracranial mass lesion, results in the intracranial hypertension that is mainly responsible for the deaths