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Henry G. Schwartz

cerebrovascular system, the recognition of tumors, the problems of increased intracranial pressure, the management of pain, and as much of the remainder of neurosurgical conditions as we can insinuate into the time allotted to us. In an era where many errant voices are questioning whether surgery should even be included in the undergraduate curriculum, we can, I believe, make a valid claim that the medical student, even though his ultimate goal be psychoanalytic psychiatry or molecular biology, should have some intelligent concept of the facts and principles of disease. The

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John S. Millis

question of “why?”. Can we take the knowledge of molecular physics, of molecular biology, of the behavioral sciences, of the several technologies, and create out of this knowledge a new medical art? We have done just this in space travel; why not in medicine? Third, it seems to me that a radical change in our concepts of continuing and post-graduate education is required. We need an education emphasizing science perhaps even more than art. The fourth aspect of the scientific revolution to which medical education has not as yet adapted is the requirement for

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Wolff M. Kirsch, Demoy Schulz, Paul Nakane, Robert Lasher and Tadami Yamamoto

. Int Rev Cytol 12: 163–197, 1961 31. Tobey RA , Anderson EC , Petersen DF : The effect of thymidine on the duration of G 1 in Chinese hamster cells. J Cell Biol 35 : 53 – 59 , 1967 Tobey RA, Anderson EC, Petersen DF: The effect of thymidine on the duration of G 1 in Chinese hamster cells. J Cell Biol 35: 53–59, 1967 32. Watson JD : Molecular Biology of the Gene . New York/Amsterdam : W A Benjamin Inc , 1965 , p. 186 Watson JD: Molecular Biology of the Gene . New York/Amsterdam: W A

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Energy state and glycolysis in human cerebral edema

The application of a new freeze-stop technique

Peter Schmiedek, Alexander Baethmann, Gunter Sippel, Wolfgang Oettinger, Robert Enzenbach, Frank Marguth and Walter Brendel

: The influence of an increased intracranial pressure on the lactate, pyruvate, bicarbonate, phosphocreatine, ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations of the cerebral cortex of dogs. Acta Physiol Scand 79: 158–166, 1970 * Freeze-stop device manufactured by Linde AG, Munich, West Germany. * Biochemical reagents were provided by C. F. Boehringer, Mannheim, West Germany. This investigation was supported by DFG-Sonderforschungsbereich 51 (Molecular Biology and Biochemistry in Medicine).

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Takao Hoshino, Kazuhiro Nomura, Charles B. Wilson, Kathy D. Knebel and Joe W. Gray

, et al : DNA constancy despite variability in chromosome number , in DuPraw EF (ed): Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology. New York : Academic Press , 1972 , Vol. 2 , pp 47 – 108 Kraemer PM, Deaven LL, Crissman HA, et al: DNA constancy despite variability in chromosome number, in DuPraw EF (ed): Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology. New York: Academic Press, 1972, Vol. 2, pp 47–108 11. Lapham LW : The tetraploid DNA content of normal human Purkinje cells and its development during the perinatal period

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Leslie P. Weiner and John O. Fleming

molecular biology to the study of the pathogenesis of viruses has led to new insights into the mechanisms of latency, persistence, and antiviral agents. Improved antiviral medications may be expected. New technology, such as recombinant DNA and hybridoma monoclonal antibody production, will produce the tools for sensitive and rapid diagnostic methods as well as for possible therapeutic interventions when human hybridomas are available. Hybridomas producing human antibodies will be useful in modulating the immune response for clearing viruses and correcting

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Keith L. Black, Shan Hsu, Norman S. Radin and Julian T. Hoff

. Prostaglandins 26 : 325 – 342 , 1983 Gorman RR, Johnson RA, Spilman CH, et al: Inhibition of platelet thromboxane A 2 synthase activity by sodium 5-(3′-pyridinylmethyl)benzofuran-2-carboxylate. Prostaglandins 26: 325–342, 1983 10. Kates M : Techniques of lipidology. Isolation, analysis and identification of lipids , in Work TS , Work E (eds): Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Amsterdam : North-Holland , 1972 , Vol 3 , pp 267 – 600 (see p 363) Kates M: Techniques of

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Politics and health: an emerging technology

The 1984 Harvey Cushing oration

Robert M. Rosenzweig

patronage of the government. It is in the nature of basic research that its costs are local but its benefits are widely distributed; it is further in the nature of research that the easier, and therefore less costly, problems are solved first, making each successive step both harder to take and more expensive. Small, locally generated resources cannot fully serve the needs of modern science. When research comes closer to the promise of providing an economic return, as it recently has in the areas of computer science and molecular biology, then there is the possibility of

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Stephanie S. Erlich and Michael L. J. Apuzzo

J: Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy. J Anat 138: 45–53, 1984 30. Cardinali DP : Melatonin. A mammalian pineal hormone. Endocr Rev 2 : 327 – 346 , 1981 Cardinali DP: Melatonin. A mammalian pineal hormone. Endocr Rev 2: 327–346, 1981 31. Cardinali DP : Molecular biology of melatonin: assessment of the “microtubule hypothesis of melatonin action,” in Birau N , Schloot W (eds): Melatonin: Current Status and Perspectives. New York : Pergamon Press

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Edward G. Jones

epilepsy can be explained in this way remains to be determined. It is evident from this brief review that much of the chemical neuropathology of the cerebral cortex remains at the descriptive level. However, an understanding of the transmitter chemistry and molecular biology of the cortex is accumulating at an increasing rate, and it is likely that we are on the threshold of breakthroughs in fundamental knowledge that will lead to equally important advances in the treatment of many neurological diseases that affect the cortex. Acknowledgment I thank Dr. S